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Article

LC-ESI/QTOF-MS Profiling of Chicory and Lucerne Polyphenols and Their Antioxidant Activities

1
School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
2
Animal Production Sciences, Agriculture Victoria Research, Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
3
Faculty of Biological Sciences, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alfredo Aires and Rubén Domínguez
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060932
Received: 12 April 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 8 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics as Antioxidant Agents)
Chicory and lucerne are used as specialised forages in sheep or dairy production systems in some parts of the world. Recently, these plants are gaining attention as raw materials in the search for natural antioxidants for use in animal feeds, human foods and nutraceutical formulations. The antioxidant potential of these plants is credited to polyphenols, a subgroup of phytochemicals. Therefore, phenolic characterisation is an essential step before their use as ingredients in animal feeds, human food or nutraceutical preparations. In this study, we performed qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols in chicory and lucerne. Profiling of polyphenols from chicory and lucerne was performed by LC-ESI/QTOF-MS with a total of 80 phenolic compounds identified in chicory and lucerne. The quantification of polyphenols was achieved by high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with a photo diode array (HPLC-PDA). Chicoric acid was the major phenolic acid found in chicory, with the highest concentration (1692.33 ± 0.04 µg/g DW) among all the polyphenols quantified in this study. 2-hydroxybenzoic acid was the major phenolic acid found in lucerne, with the highest concentration of 1440.64 ± 0.04 µg/g DW. Total phenolic, flavonoids and total tannin contents were measured, and the antioxidant potential was determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, 2,2-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic Acid, Hydroxyl (OH) Radical Scavenging Activity, Chelating Ability of Ferrous Ion (Fe2+) and Reducing Power (RPA) assays. Both chicory (8.04 ± 0.33 mg AAE/g DW) and lucerne (11.29 ± 0.25 mg AAE/g DW) showed high values for Hydroxyl (OH) Radical Scavenging Activity. The current study allowed us to draw a profile of polyphenols from chicory and lucerne. They provided a molecular fingerprint useful for the application of these plant materials in human foods, animal feeds and pharmaceutical formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicory; lucerne; polyphenols; extraction; antioxidants; LC-ESI/QTOF-MS; HPLC-PDA chicory; lucerne; polyphenols; extraction; antioxidants; LC-ESI/QTOF-MS; HPLC-PDA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iqbal, Y.; Ponnampalam, E.N.; Suleria, H.A.R.; Cottrell, J.J.; Dunshea, F.R. LC-ESI/QTOF-MS Profiling of Chicory and Lucerne Polyphenols and Their Antioxidant Activities. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 932. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060932

AMA Style

Iqbal Y, Ponnampalam EN, Suleria HAR, Cottrell JJ, Dunshea FR. LC-ESI/QTOF-MS Profiling of Chicory and Lucerne Polyphenols and Their Antioxidant Activities. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(6):932. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060932

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iqbal, Yasir, Eric N. Ponnampalam, Hafiz A.R. Suleria, Jeremy J. Cottrell, and Frank R. Dunshea. 2021. "LC-ESI/QTOF-MS Profiling of Chicory and Lucerne Polyphenols and Their Antioxidant Activities" Antioxidants 10, no. 6: 932. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060932

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