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Article

Systematic Development and Characterization of Novel, High Drug-Loaded, Photostable, Curcumin Solid Lipid Nanoparticle Hydrogel for Wound Healing

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Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
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Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
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Counter ACT Center of Excellence, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
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Center for Dermal Research (CDR), Life Sciences Building, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
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Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
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Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, Bhopal 462001, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Cristina Albertini and Seeram Ramakrishna
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050725
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 20 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 5 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Biomaterials in Health and Nutrition)
The study aims to develop high drug-loaded (about 15% lipid matrix) curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles (CSLNs) for wound healing. CSLNs prepared by hot, high-pressure homogenization, without using organic solvents, were optimized using the Taguchi design followed by the central composite design. The optimized CSLNs exhibited a high assay/drug content (0.6% w/w), solubility (6 × 105 times), and EE (75%) with a particle size < 200 nm (PDI—0.143). The CSLNs were safe (in vitro and in vivo), photostable, autoclavable, stable up to one year at 30 °C and under refrigeration and exhibited a controlled release (zero-order; 5 days). XRD, FTIR, and DSC confirmed solubilization and entrapment of the curcumin within the SLNs. TEM and FESEM revealed a smooth and spherical shape. The CSLNs showed a significant antimicrobial effect (MIC of 64 µg/mL for planktonic cells; 512 µg/mL for biofilm formation; and 2 mg/mL for mature biofilm) against Staphylococcus aureus 9144, while free curcumin dispersion did not exhibit any effect. This is the first report on the disruption of mature biofilms by curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles (CSLNs). The cell proliferation potential of CSLNs was also evaluated in vitro while the wound healing potential of CSLNs (incorporated in a hydrogel) was assessed in vivo. In (i) nitrogen mustard gas and (ii) a full-thickness excision wound model, CSLNs exhibited (a) significantly faster wound closure, (b) histologically and immunohistochemically better healing, (c) lower oxidative stress (LPO) and (d) inflammation (TNFα), and (e) increased angiogenesis (VEGF) and antioxidant enzymes, i.e., catalase and GSH levels. CSLNs thus offer a promising modern wound therapy especially for infected wounds, considering their effects in mature biofilm disruption. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocarriers; safety; biofilm; wound closure; oxidative stress; TNFα; VEGF nanocarriers; safety; biofilm; wound closure; oxidative stress; TNFα; VEGF
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sandhu, S.K.; Kumar, S.; Raut, J.; Singh, M.; Kaur, S.; Sharma, G.; Roldan, T.L.; Trehan, S.; Holloway, J.; Wahler, G.; Laskin, J.D.; Sinko, P.J.; Berthiaume, F.; Michniak-Kohn, B.; Rishi, P.; Ganesh, N.; Kaur, I.P. Systematic Development and Characterization of Novel, High Drug-Loaded, Photostable, Curcumin Solid Lipid Nanoparticle Hydrogel for Wound Healing. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 725. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050725

AMA Style

Sandhu SK, Kumar S, Raut J, Singh M, Kaur S, Sharma G, Roldan TL, Trehan S, Holloway J, Wahler G, Laskin JD, Sinko PJ, Berthiaume F, Michniak-Kohn B, Rishi P, Ganesh N, Kaur IP. Systematic Development and Characterization of Novel, High Drug-Loaded, Photostable, Curcumin Solid Lipid Nanoparticle Hydrogel for Wound Healing. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(5):725. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050725

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sandhu, Simarjot K., Suneel Kumar, Jayant Raut, Mandeep Singh, Sandeep Kaur, Garima Sharma, Tomas L. Roldan, Sonia Trehan, Jennifer Holloway, Gabriella Wahler, Jeffrey D. Laskin, Patrick J. Sinko, Francois Berthiaume, Bozena Michniak-Kohn, Praveen Rishi, Narayanan Ganesh, and Indu P. Kaur. 2021. "Systematic Development and Characterization of Novel, High Drug-Loaded, Photostable, Curcumin Solid Lipid Nanoparticle Hydrogel for Wound Healing" Antioxidants 10, no. 5: 725. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050725

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