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Article

Oxidative Stress Boosts the Uptake of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles by Changing Brain Endothelium Microvilli Pattern

1
BioNanoMedicine Center NANOMIB, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3
NABLA Lab, Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
4
Human Physiology Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributed authors.
Academic Editor: William T. Self
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020266
Received: 11 January 2021 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 5 February 2021 / Published: 9 February 2021
Vascular oxidative stress is considered a worsening factor in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels promote the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), one of the main hallmarks of AD. In turn, Aβ is a potent inducer of oxidative stress. In early stages of AD, the concomitant action of oxidative stress and Aβ on brain capillary endothelial cells was observed to compromise the blood–brain barrier functionality. In this context, antioxidant compounds might provide therapeutic benefits. To this aim, we investigated the antioxidant activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNP) in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) exposed to Aβ oligomers. Treatment with CNP (13.9 ± 0.7 nm in diameter) restored basal ROS levels in hCMEC/D3 cells, both after acute or prolonged exposure to Aβ. Moreover, we found that the extent of CNP uptake by hCMEC/D3 was +43% higher in the presence of Aβ. Scanning electron microscopy and western blot analysis suggested that changes in microvilli structures on the cell surface, under pro-oxidant stimuli (Aβ or H2O2), might be involved in the enhancement of CNP uptake. This finding opens the possibility to exploit the modulation of endothelial microvilli pattern to improve the uptake of anti-oxidant particles designed to counteract ROS-mediated cerebrovascular dysfunctions. View Full-Text
Keywords: microvilli; blood-brain barrier; cerium oxide nanoparticles; amyloid-beta; endothelial cells microvilli; blood-brain barrier; cerium oxide nanoparticles; amyloid-beta; endothelial cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dal Magro, R.; Vitali, A.; Fagioli, S.; Casu, A.; Falqui, A.; Formicola, B.; Taiarol, L.; Cassina, V.; Marrano, C.A.; Mantegazza, F.; Anselmi-Tamburini, U.; Sommi, P.; Re, F. Oxidative Stress Boosts the Uptake of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles by Changing Brain Endothelium Microvilli Pattern. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 266. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020266

AMA Style

Dal Magro R, Vitali A, Fagioli S, Casu A, Falqui A, Formicola B, Taiarol L, Cassina V, Marrano CA, Mantegazza F, Anselmi-Tamburini U, Sommi P, Re F. Oxidative Stress Boosts the Uptake of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles by Changing Brain Endothelium Microvilli Pattern. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(2):266. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020266

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dal Magro, Roberta, Agostina Vitali, Stefano Fagioli, Alberto Casu, Andrea Falqui, Beatrice Formicola, Lorenzo Taiarol, Valeria Cassina, Claudia A. Marrano, Francesco Mantegazza, Umberto Anselmi-Tamburini, Patrizia Sommi, and Francesca Re. 2021. "Oxidative Stress Boosts the Uptake of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles by Changing Brain Endothelium Microvilli Pattern" Antioxidants 10, no. 2: 266. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020266

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