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Article

Oxysterols and Retinal Microvascular Dysfunction as Early Risk Markers for Cardiovascular Disease in Normal, Ageing Individuals

by 1, 2,*,† and 1,*,†
1
Vascular Research Laboratory, College of Health and Life Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
2
Aston Medical Research Institute, Aston Medical School, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both senior authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Nicola King and M.-Saadeh Suleiman
Antioxidants 2021, 10(11), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111756
Received: 26 September 2021 / Revised: 29 October 2021 / Accepted: 30 October 2021 / Published: 3 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiac Disease)
The aim of the present paper is to assess the relationship between oxysterol levels and retinal microvascular function in individuals of various age groups, free of clinically evident diseases. Forty-two apparently healthy individuals were included in the present study (group 1: 19–30 years, group 2: 31–50 years, and group 3: 51–70 years). Retinal microvascular function was assessed using the dynamic retinal vessel analyzer (DVA, IMEDOS GmbH, Jena, Germany). Fasting plasma was obtained from all subjects and quantification of monohydroxy and dihydroxy oxysterols assessment was performed using LC-MS/MS following reverse phase chromatography. A Griess assay was used to evaluate the Nitric Oxide (NO) concentration in all individuals. The glutathione redox ratio was also analyzed by means of whole blood glutathione recycling assay. In all participants, the levels of 7-Ketocholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol correlated significantly and positively with the time to maximum arteriolar dilation. In addition, 25-hydroxycholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol negatively correlated to the percentage of maximum arteriolar dilation. A negative correlation was observed for 27-hydroxycholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol with microvascular arteriolar constriction. These results suggest that, with age, abnormal oxysterol levels correlate with early changes in microvascular bed function. This relationship could signal early risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in an ageing population. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; oxysterols; cardiovascular disease risk oxidative stress; oxysterols; cardiovascular disease risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shokr, H.; Dias, I.H.; Gherghel, D. Oxysterols and Retinal Microvascular Dysfunction as Early Risk Markers for Cardiovascular Disease in Normal, Ageing Individuals. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1756. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111756

AMA Style

Shokr H, Dias IH, Gherghel D. Oxysterols and Retinal Microvascular Dysfunction as Early Risk Markers for Cardiovascular Disease in Normal, Ageing Individuals. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(11):1756. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111756

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shokr, Hala, Irundika H. Dias, and Doina Gherghel. 2021. "Oxysterols and Retinal Microvascular Dysfunction as Early Risk Markers for Cardiovascular Disease in Normal, Ageing Individuals" Antioxidants 10, no. 11: 1756. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111756

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