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Open AccessArticle

Insomnia Symptoms among African-American Older Adults in Economically Disadvantaged Areas of South Los Angeles

1
Department of Family Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science (CDU), Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
2
Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
3
School of Nursing, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
4
Urban Health Institute, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(11), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9110306
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 2 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disturbances of Sleep Among Older People)
Background. Although psychosocial and health factors impact insomnia symptoms, less is known about these effects in economically disadvantaged African-American older adults. Aims. This study investigated social and health determinants of insomnia symptoms among economically disadvantaged African-American older adults. Methods. This survey enrolled 398 African-American older adults (age ≥ 65 years) from economically disadvantaged areas of South Los Angeles. Gender, age, educational attainment, financial difficulty, number of chronic diseases, self-rated health, pain intensity, and depression were covariates. Total insomnia, insomnia symptoms, and insomnia impact were our outcomes. Linear regression was applied for data analysis. Results. Based on linear regression, higher financial difficulty (B = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.35–0.61), smoking status (B = 1.64, 95% CI = 0.13–3.16), higher pain intensity (B = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.11–0.67), higher number of chronic diseases (B = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.05–0.64), and more depressive symptoms (B = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.12–0.57) were associated with a higher frequency of insomnia symptoms. Based on a logistic regression model, lower age (B = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.91–1.00) and high financial difficulty (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08–1.24), pain (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.14–3.80), chronic disease (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.07–1.51) and depression (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.22–4.65) were associated with higher odds of possible clinical insomnia. We also found specific predictors for insomnia symptoms and insomnia impact. Conclusions. Among African-American older adults in economically disadvantaged areas of South Los Angeles, insomnia symptoms co-occur with other economic, physical, and mental health challenges such as financial difficulty, smoking, multimorbidity, pain, and depression. There is a need to address sleep as a component of care of economically disadvantaged African-American older adults who have multiple social and health challenges. View Full-Text
Keywords: African-Americans; depression; older adults; insomnia; sleep disorder; sleep quality African-Americans; depression; older adults; insomnia; sleep disorder; sleep quality
MDPI and ACS Style

Bazargan, M.; Mian, N.; Cobb, S.; Vargas, R.; Assari, S. Insomnia Symptoms among African-American Older Adults in Economically Disadvantaged Areas of South Los Angeles. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 306.

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