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Article

TMS-Induced Central Motor Conduction Time at the Non-Infarcted Hemisphere Is Associated with Spontaneous Motor Recovery of the Paretic Upper Limb after Severe Stroke

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Rehabilitation Center Vogellanden, 8013 XZ Zwolle, The Netherlands
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Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Center|Reade, 1054 HW Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Isala, 8025 AB Zwolle, The Netherlands
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Department of General Practice and Elderly Care Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9712 CP Groningen, The Netherlands
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Amsterdam University Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Amsterdam Neurosciences, Amsterdam University Medical Centre, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University of Chicago, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ulrich Palm, Moussa Antoine Chalah and Samar S. Ayache
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(5), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050648
Received: 5 April 2021 / Revised: 4 May 2021 / Accepted: 11 May 2021 / Published: 15 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Stimulation and Neuroplasticity)
Background: Stroke affects the neuronal networks of the non-infarcted hemisphere. The central motor conduction time (CMCT) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) could be used to determine the conduction time of the corticospinal tract of the non-infarcted hemisphere after a stroke. Objectives: Our primary aim was to demonstrate the existence of prolonged CMCT in the non-infarcted hemisphere, measured within the first 48 h when compared to normative data, and secondly, if the severity of motor impairment of the affected upper limb was significantly associated with prolonged CMCTs in the non-infarcted hemisphere when measured within the first 2 weeks post stroke. Methods: CMCT in the non-infarcted hemisphere was measured in 50 patients within 48 h and at 11 days after a first-ever ischemic stroke. Patients lacking significant spontaneous motor recovery, so-called non-recoverers, were defined as those who started below 18 points on the FM-UE and showed less than 6 points (10%) improvement within 6 months. Results: CMCT in the non-infarcted hemisphere was prolonged in 30/50 (60%) patients within 48 h and still in 24/49 (49%) patients at 11 days. Sustained prolonged CMCT in the non-infarcted hemisphere was significantly more frequent in non-recoverers following FM-UE. Conclusions: The current study suggests that CMCT in the non-infarcted hemisphere is significantly prolonged in 60% of severely affected, ischemic stroke patients when measured within the first 48 h post stroke. The likelihood of CMCT is significantly higher in non-recoverers when compared to those that show spontaneous motor recovery early post stroke. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; recovery; upper limb; prognosis; transcranial magnetic stimulation stroke; recovery; upper limb; prognosis; transcranial magnetic stimulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoonhorst, M.H.J.; Nijland, R.H.M.; Emmelot, C.H.; Kollen, B.J.; Kwakkel, G. TMS-Induced Central Motor Conduction Time at the Non-Infarcted Hemisphere Is Associated with Spontaneous Motor Recovery of the Paretic Upper Limb after Severe Stroke. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 648. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050648

AMA Style

Hoonhorst MHJ, Nijland RHM, Emmelot CH, Kollen BJ, Kwakkel G. TMS-Induced Central Motor Conduction Time at the Non-Infarcted Hemisphere Is Associated with Spontaneous Motor Recovery of the Paretic Upper Limb after Severe Stroke. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(5):648. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050648

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoonhorst, Maurits H.J., Rinske H.M. Nijland, Cornelis H. Emmelot, Boudewijn J. Kollen, and Gert Kwakkel. 2021. "TMS-Induced Central Motor Conduction Time at the Non-Infarcted Hemisphere Is Associated with Spontaneous Motor Recovery of the Paretic Upper Limb after Severe Stroke" Brain Sciences 11, no. 5: 648. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050648

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