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Disentangling Restrictive and Repetitive Behaviors and Social Impairments in Children and Adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder
Open AccessReview

Update on Atypicalities of Central Nervous System in Autism Spectrum Disorder

1
Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Kepala Batas 13200, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
2
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Autism Research Group, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(5), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050309
Received: 9 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 17 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Neuroglia)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous, behaviorally defined, neurodevelopmental disorder that has been modeled as a brain-based disease. The behavioral and cognitive features of ASD are associated with pervasive atypicalities in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, the exact mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of ASD still remain unknown and there is currently no cure or effective treatment for this disorder. Many publications implicated the association of ASD with inflammation, immune dysregulation, neurotransmission dysfunction, mitochondrial impairment and cell signaling dysregulation. This review attempts to highlight evidence of the major pathophysiology of ASD including abnormalities in the brain structure and function, neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation, glutamatergic neurotransmission, mitochondrial dysfunction and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway dysregulation. Molecular and cellular factors that contributed to the pathogenesis of ASD and how they may affect the development and function of CNS are compiled in this review. However, findings of published studies have been complicated by the fact that autism is a very heterogeneous disorder; hence, we addressed the limitations that led to discrepancies in the reported findings. This review emphasizes the need for future studies to control study variables such as sample size, gender, age range and intelligence quotient (IQ), all of which that could affect the study measurements. Neuroinflammation or immune dysregulation, microglial activation, genetically linked neurotransmission, mitochondrial dysfunctions and mTOR signaling pathway could be the primary targets for treating and preventing ASD. Further research is required to better understand the molecular causes and how they may contribute to the pathophysiology of ASD. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism; autism spectrum disorder; central nervous system; brain autism; autism spectrum disorder; central nervous system; brain
MDPI and ACS Style

Shuid, A.N.; Jayusman, P.A.; Shuid, N.; Ismail, J.; Kamal Nor, N.; Naina Mohamed, I. Update on Atypicalities of Central Nervous System in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 309.

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