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Identifying Core Regions for Path Integration on Medial Entorhinal Cortex of Hippocampal Formation

1
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554, Japan
2
Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
3
The Whole Brain Architecture Initiative, a Specified Nonprofit Organization, Nishikoiwa 2-19-21, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo 133-0057, Japan
4
Dwango Co., Ltd., KABUKIZA TOWER, 4-12-15 Ginza, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0061, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10010028
Received: 7 December 2019 / Accepted: 31 December 2019 / Published: 5 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Theoretical and Computational Neuroscience)
Path integration is one of the functions that support the self-localization ability of animals. Path integration outputs position information after an animal’s movement when initial-position and movement information is input. The core region responsible for this function has been identified as the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), which is part of the hippocampal formation that constitutes the limbic system. However, a more specific core region has not yet been identified. This research aims to clarify the detailed structure at the cell-firing level in the core region responsible for path integration from fragmentarily accumulated experimental and theoretical findings by reviewing 77 papers. This research draws a novel diagram that describes the MEC, the hippocampus, and their surrounding regions by focusing on the MEC’s input/output (I/O) information. The diagram was created by summarizing the results of exhaustively scrutinizing the papers that are relative to the I/O relationship, the connection relationship, and cell position and firing pattern. From additional investigations, we show function information related to path integration, such as I/O information and the relationship between multiple functions. Furthermore, we constructed an algorithmic hypothesis on I/O information and path-integration calculation method from the diagram and the information of functions related to path integration. The algorithmic hypothesis is composed of regions related to path integration, the I/O relations between them, the calculation performed there, and the information representations (cell-firing pattern) in them. Results of examining the hypothesis confirmed that the core region responsible for path integration was either stellate cells in layer II or pyramidal cells in layer III of the MEC. View Full-Text
Keywords: path integration; hippocampus; medial entorhinal cortex; grid cell; place cell; speed cell; head-direction cell; navigation; cognitive map path integration; hippocampus; medial entorhinal cortex; grid cell; place cell; speed cell; head-direction cell; navigation; cognitive map
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Fukawa, A.; Aizawa, T.; Yamakawa, H.; Eguchi Yairi, I. Identifying Core Regions for Path Integration on Medial Entorhinal Cortex of Hippocampal Formation. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 28.

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