In order to study the mechanical loads of a workpiece in manufacturing processes such as single-tooth milling, in-process measurements of workpiece deformations are required. To enable the resolution of shock waves due to the mechanical impact of the tool, a novel measurement system based on speckle photography is introduced to measure the dynamic deformations and strains with a high temporal and spatial resolution. The measurement results indicate deformations and strains propagating through the workpiece with the speed of sound triggered by the tool impact (i.e., the tool impact is shown to induce shock waves during milling). Finite element simulations of the workpiece behavior are performed in addition, which support the experimental findings. In the considered case, the dynamic excitation subsides after 300 ms. Hence, in processes with even shorter cyclic multiple loads, the tool encounters an already excited initial state during machining, which needs to be taken into account when precisely modeling the milling process and the resulting workpiece quality. Finally, the measurement results demonstrate that speckle photography in combination with modern high-speed cameras and compact short-pulse lasers provides a deeper understanding of individual manufacturing processes.
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