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Open AccessArticle

Thermal Evaluation of Graphene Nanoplatelets Nanofluid in a Fast-Responding HP with the Potential Use in Solar Systems in Smart Cities

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School of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
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Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia
3
School of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
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Department of Medical Equipment Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia
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Division of Computational Physics, Institute for Computational Science, Ton Duc Tang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
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Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2101; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102101
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Applications in Houses, Smart Cities and Microgrids)
An experimental study was undertaken to assess the heat-transfer coefficient (HTC) of graphene nanoplatelets-pentane nanofluid inside a gravity-assisted heat pipe (HP). Influence of various parameters comprising heat flux, mass fraction of the nanoparticles, installation angle and filling ratio (FR) of the working fluid on the HTC of the HP was investigated. Results showed that the HTC of the HP was strongly improved due to the presence of the graphene nanoplatelets. Also, by enhancing the heat flux, the HTC of the HP was improved. Two trade-off behaviors were identified. The first trade-off belonged to the available space in the evaporator and the heat-transfer coefficient of the system. Another trade-off was identified between the installation angle and the residence time of the working fluid inside the condenser unit. The installation angle and the FR of the HP were identified in which the HTC of the HP was the highest. The value of installation angle and filling ratio were 65° and 0.55, respectively. Likewise, the highest HTC was obtained at the largest mass fraction of the graphene nanoplatelets which was at wt. % = 0.3. The improvement in the HTC of the HP was ascribed to the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects of the graphene nanoplatelets. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; n-pentane; thermosyphon; Thermal performance; tilt angle; filling ratio graphene; n-pentane; thermosyphon; Thermal performance; tilt angle; filling ratio
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarafraz, M.M.; Tlili, I.; Tian, Z.; Bakouri, M.; Safaei, M.R.; Goodarzi, M. Thermal Evaluation of Graphene Nanoplatelets Nanofluid in a Fast-Responding HP with the Potential Use in Solar Systems in Smart Cities. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2101.

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