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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050752

Prophylactic Effects of Polymethoxyflavone-Rich Orange Peel Oil on Nω-Nitro-L-Arginine-Induced Hypertensive Rats

1
College of Food Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
2
Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing 400712, China
3
Chongqing Collaborative Innovation Center for Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing 400067, China
4
College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing 400067, China
5
College of Plant Protections, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
6
Chongqing Zhongxian Fruit Industry Bureau, Chongqing 404000, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering)
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Abstract

The prophylactic effects of the polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) in long-leaf orange peel oil (OPO) were determined using an Nω-nitro-L-arginine-induced hypertensive rat model. The OPO contained eight PMF components, namely sinensetin, hexamethoxyflavone, tetramethyl-O-isoscutellarein, nobiletin, tetramethyl-O-scutellarein, heptamethoxyflavone, 5-demethylnobiletin and tangeretin. After treatment with OPO, the SP (systolic pressure) and DP (diastolic pressure) in hypertensive rats were reduced. The NO (nitric oxide) contents in serum, heart, liver and kidney of OPO-treated Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA)-induced hypertensive rats were higher than those in untreated hypertensive rats, but the MDA (malondialdehyde) contents in OPO-treated rats were lower than those of the control rats (untreated hypertensive rats). ET-1 (endothelin-1), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and E-selectin serum levels in hypertensive rats could be reduced, but the CGRP (calcium gene-related peptide) level could be increased by OPO treatment. The results of the qPCR assay showed that OPO upregulated HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) mRNA expression and downregulated ADM (adrenomedullin), RAMP2 (receptor activity modifying protein 2) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) expression in hypertensive rats. The Western blot results also proved that OPO upregulated nNOS and eNOS protein expression and downregulated iNOS expression in hypertensive rats. Based on this study, we could conclude that OPO showed good antihypertensive effects, and the effect was concentration dependent. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymethoxyflavones; hypertensive; orange peel oil; rat; Nω-nitro-L-arginine polymethoxyflavones; hypertensive; orange peel oil; rat; Nω-nitro-L-arginine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Li, G.-J.; Wang, J.; Cheng, Y.-J.; Tan, X.; Zhai, Y.-L.; Wang, Q.; Gao, F.-J.; Liu, G.-L.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H. Prophylactic Effects of Polymethoxyflavone-Rich Orange Peel Oil on Nω-Nitro-L-Arginine-Induced Hypertensive Rats. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 752.

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