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Open AccessArticle

Unstable and Multiple Pulsing Can Be Invisible to Ultrashort Pulse Measurement Techniques

1
School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
2
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of a paper published in SPIE conference on Real-time Measurements, Rogue Events, and Emerging Applications, San Francisco, CA, USA, 13–18 February 2016.
Academic Editors: Luca Poletto and Antonella Bogoni
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010040
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrashort Optical Pulses)
Multiple pulsing occurs in most ultrashort-pulse laser systems when pumped at excessively high powers, and small fluctuations in pump power in certain regimes can cause unusual variations in the temporal separations of sub-pulses. Unfortunately, the ability of modern intensity-and-phase pulse measurement techniques to measure such unstable multi-pulsing has not been studied. Here we report calculations and simulations finding that allowing variations in just the relative phase of a satellite pulse causes the second pulse to completely disappear from a spectral interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER) measurement. We find that, although neither frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) nor autocorrelation can determine the precise properties of satellite pulses due to the presence of instability, they always succeed in, at least, seeing the satellite pulses. Also, additional post-processing of the measured FROG trace can determine the correct approximate relative height of the satellite pulse and definitively indicate the presence of unstable multiple-pulsing. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrafast optics; ultrashort pulse measurement ultrafast optics; ultrashort pulse measurement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rhodes, M.; Guang, Z.; Trebino, R. Unstable and Multiple Pulsing Can Be Invisible to Ultrashort Pulse Measurement Techniques. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 40.

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