Multiple pulsing occurs in most ultrashort-pulse laser systems when pumped at excessively high powers, and small fluctuations in pump power in certain regimes can cause unusual variations in the temporal separations of sub-pulses. Unfortunately, the ability of modern intensity-and-phase pulse measurement techniques to measure such unstable multi-pulsing has not been studied. Here we report calculations and simulations finding that allowing variations in just the relative phase of a satellite pulse causes the second pulse to completely disappear from a spectral interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER) measurement. We find that, although neither frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) nor autocorrelation can determine the precise properties of satellite pulses due to the presence of instability, they always succeed in, at least, seeing the satellite pulses. Also, additional post-processing of the measured FROG trace can determine the correct approximate relative height of the satellite pulse and definitively indicate the presence of unstable multiple-pulsing.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited