Toward the Design of a Representative Heater for Boiling Flow Characterization under PWR’s Prototypical Thermalhydraulic Conditions
- The experimental setup and associated measurement techniques are introduced in the Section 2.
- The thermal behavior of the heater is then studied through a 1D approach considering realistic time-dependent boundary conditions that properly simulate nucleate boiling in Section 3.
- In the Section 4, a 2D extension analysis of the thermal behavior of the heater is introduced; some discussions concerning space meshing of the method and enhancement will be presented.
- Finally, the Section 5 concludes this study by highlighting the main findings and suggestions for further research.
2. Experimental Setup
3. Thermal Study of the Heater
- In the first step, the direct heat conduction problem is solved within the plate for a given couple of boundary conditions expressed on both sides of the calculation domain:
The objective is to calculate The subscript d indicates that the direct problem is being solved.
- On the dry side: , .
- On the wet side: , .
- In the second step, the associated inverse heat conduction problem is studied by solving the diffusion equation for a given couple of boundary conditions expressed on the dry side of the plate:
The objective is to calculate the wet temperature and to check whether . The subscript i means that the inverse problem is being solved. One should notice that this configuration is very close to the one that will be encountered during the tests since will effectively be measured by IR thermography.
- On the dry side: , .
- On the dry side: , .
- In the third step, a sensitivity analysis to the uncertainties of will be performed.
3.2. Direct Problem
3.2.2. Preliminary Magnitude through Analytical Analysis
3.2.3. 1D Solving
3.2.4. Thickness Calculation
3.3. Inverse Problem
3.3.1. Measurement Techniques
4. Spatial Resolution of the Measurements
4.1. 2D Diffusion Influence
4.2. Thermal Influence Area of a Bubble Growth
- The first step consists of identifying the thickness corresponding to the camera-readable amplitude of the dry-side temperature variation (example Figure 20; criteria 1 gives a 170 µm of thickness, criteria 2 gives 110 µm of thickness.),
- The second step determines the dry-side influence area considering the two temperature criteria (see Figure 21; criteria 1’s thickness is valid ( = 60 µm), but criteria 2 correlates with 100 µm of thickness ( = 60 µm)).
4.3. Discretization between Two Bubbles Growing on the Plate
Conflicts of Interest
|PWR||pressurized water reactor|
|CEA||Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives|
|CFD||computational fluid dynamics|
|ONB||onset of nucleate boiling|
|DNB||departure from nucleate boiling|
|ITO||indium tin oxide|
Appendix A. Unal Frequency Correlation
|Heat flux||[0.47–4.5] MW/m|
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|Bubble Size |
|First Criterion: Detection Thickness |
|Second Criterion: Measurement Thickness |
|Thickness||Bubble Size||Minimum Gap for Detection|
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Bernadou, L.; François, F.; Bottin, M.; Djeridi, H.; Barre, S. Toward the Design of a Representative Heater for Boiling Flow Characterization under PWR’s Prototypical Thermalhydraulic Conditions. Appl. Sci. 2023, 13, 1534. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031534
Bernadou L, François F, Bottin M, Djeridi H, Barre S. Toward the Design of a Representative Heater for Boiling Flow Characterization under PWR’s Prototypical Thermalhydraulic Conditions. Applied Sciences. 2023; 13(3):1534. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031534Chicago/Turabian Style
Bernadou, Louise, Fabrice François, Manon Bottin, Henda Djeridi, and Stephane Barre. 2023. "Toward the Design of a Representative Heater for Boiling Flow Characterization under PWR’s Prototypical Thermalhydraulic Conditions" Applied Sciences 13, no. 3: 1534. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031534