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Article

System-Level Assessment of a C-RAN based on Generalized Space–Frequency Index Modulation for 5G New Radio and Beyond

1
Department of Information Science and Technology, ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, 1649-026 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Instituto de Telecomunicações, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mario Marques Da Silva
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031592
Received: 12 January 2022 / Revised: 29 January 2022 / Accepted: 31 January 2022 / Published: 2 February 2022
Index modulation (IM) has been attracting considerable research efforts in recent years as it is considered a promising technology that can enhance spectral and energy efficiency and help cope with the rising demand of mobile traffic in future wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a cloud radio access network (C-RAN) suitable for fifth-generation (5G) and beyond systems, where the base stations (BSs) and access points (APs) transmit multidimensional IM symbols, which we refer to as precoding-aided transmitter-side generalized space–frequency IM (PT-GSFIM). The adopted PT-GSFIM approach is an alternative multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) scheme that avoids multiuser interference (MUI) while exploiting the inherent diversity in frequency-selective channels. To validate the potential gains of the proposed PT-GSFIM-based C-RAN, a thorough system-level assessment is presented for three different three-dimensional scenarios taken from standardized 5G New Radio (5G NR), using two different numerologies and frequency ranges. Throughput performance results indicate that the 28 GHz band in spite of its higher bandwidth and higher achieved throughput presents lower spectral efficiency (SE). The 3.5 GHz band having lower bandwidth and lower achieved throughput attains higher SE. Overall, the results indicate that a C-RAN based on the proposed PT-GSFIM scheme clearly outperforms both generalized spatial modulation (GSM) and conventional MU-MIMO, exploiting its additional inherent frequency diversity. View Full-Text
Keywords: index modulation; precoding; PT-GSFIM; multiuser MIMO; system-level simulation; 5G and beyond 5G index modulation; precoding; PT-GSFIM; multiuser MIMO; system-level simulation; 5G and beyond 5G
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MDPI and ACS Style

Velez, V.; Pavia, J.P.; Rita, C.; Gonçalves, C.; Souto, N.; Sebastião, P.; Correia, A. System-Level Assessment of a C-RAN based on Generalized Space–Frequency Index Modulation for 5G New Radio and Beyond. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 1592. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031592

AMA Style

Velez V, Pavia JP, Rita C, Gonçalves C, Souto N, Sebastião P, Correia A. System-Level Assessment of a C-RAN based on Generalized Space–Frequency Index Modulation for 5G New Radio and Beyond. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(3):1592. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031592

Chicago/Turabian Style

Velez, Vasco, João Pedro Pavia, Catarina Rita, Carolina Gonçalves, Nuno Souto, Pedro Sebastião, and Américo Correia. 2022. "System-Level Assessment of a C-RAN based on Generalized Space–Frequency Index Modulation for 5G New Radio and Beyond" Applied Sciences 12, no. 3: 1592. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031592

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