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Article

Backpack Process Model (BPPM): A Process Mining Approach for Curricular Analytics

1
Department of Computer Science, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
2
Institute of Informatics, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 5110701, Chile
3
Computer Science Department, Universidad de Cuenca, Cuenca 010107, Ecuador
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pentti Nieminen
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4265; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094265
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 8 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Lifelong Learning)
Curricular analytics is the area of learning analytics that looks for insights and evidence on the relationship between curricular elements and the degree of achievement of curricular outcomes. For higher education institutions, curricular analytics can be useful for identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the curricula and for justifying changes in learning pathways for students. This work presents the study of curricular trajectories as processes (i.e., sequence of events) using process mining techniques. Specifically, the Backpack Process Model (BPPM) is defined as a novel model to unveil student trajectories, not by the courses that they take, but according to the courses that they have failed and have yet to pass. The usefulness of the proposed model is validated through the analysis of the curricular trajectories of N = 4466 engineering students considering the first courses in their program. We found differences between backpack trajectories that resulted in retention or in dropout; specific courses in the backpack and a larger initial backpack sizes were associated with a higher proportion of dropout. BPPM can contribute to understanding how students handle failed courses they must retake, providing information that could contribute to designing and implementing timely interventions in higher education institutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: learning analytics; curricular analytics; process mining; curricular trajectories; higher education learning analytics; curricular analytics; process mining; curricular trajectories; higher education
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salazar-Fernandez, J.P.; Munoz-Gama, J.; Maldonado-Mahauad, J.; Bustamante, D.; Sepúlveda, M. Backpack Process Model (BPPM): A Process Mining Approach for Curricular Analytics. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 4265. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094265

AMA Style

Salazar-Fernandez JP, Munoz-Gama J, Maldonado-Mahauad J, Bustamante D, Sepúlveda M. Backpack Process Model (BPPM): A Process Mining Approach for Curricular Analytics. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(9):4265. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094265

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salazar-Fernandez, Juan P., Jorge Munoz-Gama, Jorge Maldonado-Mahauad, Diego Bustamante, and Marcos Sepúlveda. 2021. "Backpack Process Model (BPPM): A Process Mining Approach for Curricular Analytics" Applied Sciences 11, no. 9: 4265. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094265

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