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Article

Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Supplementary Irrigation Management

1
Faculty of Agrobiotechnical Scineces, University of Joisp Juraj Strossmayer, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
2
Agricultural Institute Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
3
Faculty of Agriculture, Isparta University of Applied Sciences, 32200 Isparta, Turkey
4
Biotechnical Department, University of Slavonski Brod, 35000 Slavonski Brod, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jega Veeriah Jegatheesan
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2451; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062451
Received: 12 February 2021 / Revised: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 10 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint and Life Cycle Assessment)
Watermark, Tensiometer and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) are commonly used soil water sensors in irrigation practice whose performance depends on soil type, depth and growing conditions. Here, the results of sensor performance evaluation in different soil depths as well as the field and laboratory testing in silty clay loamy soil are presented. Gravimetric soil moisture samples were taken from sensor installation depths (10, 20, 30 and 45 cm) and used as reference Soil Water Content (SWC). The measurements varied significantly (p < 0.05) across the monitoring depths. On average across the soil depths, there was a strong negative linear relationship between Watermark (r = −0.91) and TDR (r = 0.94), and a moderate negative (r = −0.75) linear relationship between SWC and Tensiometer. In general, Watermark and Tensiometer measured SWC with great accuracy in the range of readily available water, generated larger Mean Difference (MD) than TDR and overestimated SWC, while TDR underestimated SWC. Overall, laboratory testing reduced the root mean square error (RMSE, Watermark = 1.2, Tensiometer = 2.6, TDR = 1.9) and Mean Average Error (MAE, Watermark = 0.9, Tensiometer = 2.04. TDR = 1.04) for all tested sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensor performance; field testing; laboratory testing; statistical analysis sensor performance; field testing; laboratory testing; statistical analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marković, M.; Krizmanić, G.; Brkić, A.; Atilgan, A.; Japundžić-Palenkić, B.; Petrović, D.; Barač, Ž. Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Supplementary Irrigation Management. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 2451. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062451

AMA Style

Marković M, Krizmanić G, Brkić A, Atilgan A, Japundžić-Palenkić B, Petrović D, Barač Ž. Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Supplementary Irrigation Management. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(6):2451. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062451

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marković, Monika, Goran Krizmanić, Andrija Brkić, Atilgan Atilgan, Božica Japundžić-Palenkić, Davor Petrović, and Željko Barač. 2021. "Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Supplementary Irrigation Management" Applied Sciences 11, no. 6: 2451. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062451

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