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Article

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Irradiation Facilitates Transdermal Permeability of Aniline Blue on Porcine Skin and the Cellular Permeability of Keratinocytes with the Production of Nitric Oxide

by 1,†, 2,†, 3, 2,* and 1,3,*
1
Department of Emergency Medicine, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul 04763, Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
3
Research Center, CODESTERI Inc., Seoul 04763, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Matteo Zuin and Andrei Vasile Nastuta
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2390; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052390
Received: 13 January 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2021 / Accepted: 4 March 2021 / Published: 8 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Technology)
The transdermal delivery system of nutrients, cosmetics, and drugs is particularly attractive for painless, noninvasive delivery and sustainable release. Recently, atmospheric pressure plasma techniques have been of great interest to improve the drug absorption rate in transdermal delivery. Currently, plasma-mediated changes in the lipid composition of the stratum corneum are considered a possible mechanism to increase transdermal permeability. Nevertheless, its molecular and cellular mechanisms in transdermal delivery have been largely confined and still veiled. Herein, we present the effects of cold plasma on transdermal transmission on porcine skin and the cellular permeability of keratinocytes and further demonstrate the production of nitric oxide from keratinocytes. Consequently, argon plasma irradiation for 60 s resulted in 2.5-fold higher transdermal absorption of aniline blue dye on porcine skin compared to the nontreated control. In addition, the plasma-treated keratinocytes showed an increased transmission of high-molecular-weight molecules (70 and 150 kDa) with the production of nitric oxide. Therefore, these findings suggest a promoting effect of low-temperature plasma on transdermal absorption, even for high-molecular-weight molecules. Moreover, plasma-induced nitric oxide from keratinocytes is likely to regulate transdermal permeability in the epidermal layer. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric pressure plasma; transdermal permeability; transdermal delivery; nitric oxide; plasma medicine atmospheric pressure plasma; transdermal permeability; transdermal delivery; nitric oxide; plasma medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.; Choi, J.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y.; Lim, T.H. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Irradiation Facilitates Transdermal Permeability of Aniline Blue on Porcine Skin and the Cellular Permeability of Keratinocytes with the Production of Nitric Oxide. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 2390. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052390

AMA Style

Lee S, Choi J, Kim J, Jang Y, Lim TH. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Irradiation Facilitates Transdermal Permeability of Aniline Blue on Porcine Skin and the Cellular Permeability of Keratinocytes with the Production of Nitric Oxide. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(5):2390. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052390

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Sunmi, Jongbong Choi, Junghyun Kim, Yongwoo Jang, and Tae Ho Lim. 2021. "Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Irradiation Facilitates Transdermal Permeability of Aniline Blue on Porcine Skin and the Cellular Permeability of Keratinocytes with the Production of Nitric Oxide" Applied Sciences 11, no. 5: 2390. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052390

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