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Article

Rockfall Modelling in Forested Areas: The Role of Digital Terrain Model Grid Cell Size

1
Department of Forestry and Forest Renewable Resources, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 83, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Department of Environmental Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova cesta 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cheng-Yu Ku
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041461
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 5 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Earth Sciences and Geography)
This article examines how digital terrain model (DTM) grid cell size influences rockfall modelling using a probabilistic process-based model, Rockyfor3D, while taking into account the effect of forest on rockfall propagation and runout area. Two rockfall sites in the Trenta valley, NW Slovenia, were chosen as a case study. The analysis included DTM square grid cell sizes of 1, 2, 5, and 10 m, which were extracted from LiDAR data. In the paper, we compared results of rockfall propagation and runout areas, maximum kinetic energy, and maximum passing height between different grid cell sizes and forest/no forest scenario, namely by using goodness-of-fit indices (average index, success index, distance to the perfect classification, true skill statistics). The results show that the accuracy of the modelled shape of rockfall propagation and runout area decreases with larger DTM grid cell sizes. The forest has the important effect of reducing the rockfall propagation only at DTM1 and DTM2 and only if the distance between the source area and forest is large enough. Higher deviations of the maximum kinetic energy are present at DTMs with larger grid cell size, while differences are smaller at more DTMs with smaller grid cell sizes. Maximum passing height varies the most at DTM1 in the forest scenario, while at other DTMs, it does not experience larger deviations in the two scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: rockfall; hazard; modelling; DTM; LiDAR; forest; protective effect; grid cell size rockfall; hazard; modelling; DTM; LiDAR; forest; protective effect; grid cell size
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MDPI and ACS Style

Žabota, B.; Mikoš, M.; Kobal, M. Rockfall Modelling in Forested Areas: The Role of Digital Terrain Model Grid Cell Size. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 1461. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041461

AMA Style

Žabota B, Mikoš M, Kobal M. Rockfall Modelling in Forested Areas: The Role of Digital Terrain Model Grid Cell Size. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(4):1461. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041461

Chicago/Turabian Style

Žabota, Barbara; Mikoš, Matjaž; Kobal, Milan. 2021. "Rockfall Modelling in Forested Areas: The Role of Digital Terrain Model Grid Cell Size" Appl. Sci. 11, no. 4: 1461. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041461

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