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Article

Impact of the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) on Foraminiferal and Calcareous Nannofossil Assemblages in the Neo-Tethyan Baskil Section (Eastern Turkey): Paleoenvironmental and Paleoclimatic Reconstructions

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Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
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Institute of Geological Sciences, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
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Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom 32511, Egypt
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Dipartimento di Scienze Pure e Applicate (DiSPeA), Università degli Studi di Urbino “Carlo Bo”, 61029 Urbino, Italy
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Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse CNR, 56124 Pisa, Italy
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Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Institute for Geology, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße, 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
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Instituto de Geociências da Universidade de Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro ICC, Ala Central, Brasília 70910-900, Brazil
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Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Mines, İstanbul Technical University (İTÜ), Maslak, Istanbul 34469, Turkey
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Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico, 191, São Paulo 05508-120, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel Dias
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11339; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311339
Received: 20 October 2021 / Revised: 23 November 2021 / Accepted: 24 November 2021 / Published: 30 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paleoceanography: Latest Advances and Prospects)
The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO; ~40 Ma), which interrupted for ~500–600 kyr the long-term cooling trend culminating at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, still requires a comprehensive understanding of the biotic resilience. Here we present a high-resolution integrated foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil study across the MECO from the expanded and continuous Tethyan Baskil section (eastern Turkey) that offers a complete magneto-biostratigraphic and geochemical framework. The five MECO phases identified reveal a transition from oligotrophic (pre-MECO) to eu-mesotrophic conditions, possibly related to accelerated hydrological cycle, during the initial MECO and MECO δ13C negative excursion phases. The MECO WARMING PEAK phase, marking the highest carbonate dissolution interval, records the most striking biotic changes, such as peak in warm and eutrophic nannofossils, virtual disappearance of the oligotrophic planktic foraminiferal large Acarinina and Morozovelloides, and peak in eutrophic deep dwellers Subbotina. Benthic foraminifera suggest in this phase an improvement in the quality of organic matter to the seafloor. The post-MECO phase shows only a partial recovery of the pre-event conditions. Large Acarinina and Morozovelloides did not recover their abundance, possibly due to cooler conditions in this phase. Our reconstruction reveals how paleoenvironment and marine biota from the studied Neo-Tethyan setting reacted to the MECO perturbations. View Full-Text
Keywords: planktic foraminifera; benthic foraminifera; calcareous nannofossils; middle eocene climatic optimum; Neo-Tethys; biota resilience; warming event analogues planktic foraminifera; benthic foraminifera; calcareous nannofossils; middle eocene climatic optimum; Neo-Tethys; biota resilience; warming event analogues
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MDPI and ACS Style

D’Onofrio, R.; Zaky, A.S.; Frontalini, F.; Luciani, V.; Catanzariti, R.; Francescangeli, F.; Giorgioni, M.; Coccioni, R.; Özcan, E.; Jovane, L. Impact of the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) on Foraminiferal and Calcareous Nannofossil Assemblages in the Neo-Tethyan Baskil Section (Eastern Turkey): Paleoenvironmental and Paleoclimatic Reconstructions. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 11339. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311339

AMA Style

D’Onofrio R, Zaky AS, Frontalini F, Luciani V, Catanzariti R, Francescangeli F, Giorgioni M, Coccioni R, Özcan E, Jovane L. Impact of the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) on Foraminiferal and Calcareous Nannofossil Assemblages in the Neo-Tethyan Baskil Section (Eastern Turkey): Paleoenvironmental and Paleoclimatic Reconstructions. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(23):11339. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311339

Chicago/Turabian Style

D’Onofrio, Roberta, Amr S. Zaky, Fabrizio Frontalini, Valeria Luciani, Rita Catanzariti, Fabio Francescangeli, Martino Giorgioni, Rodolfo Coccioni, Ercan Özcan, and Luigi Jovane. 2021. "Impact of the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) on Foraminiferal and Calcareous Nannofossil Assemblages in the Neo-Tethyan Baskil Section (Eastern Turkey): Paleoenvironmental and Paleoclimatic Reconstructions" Applied Sciences 11, no. 23: 11339. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311339

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