Next Article in Journal
Optimum Design of Flexural Strength and Stiffness for Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Machine Learning
Previous Article in Journal
Homomorphic Encryption Based Privacy-Preservation for IoMT
Article

Dimension Reduction Using New Bond Graph Algorithm and Deep Learning Pooling on EEG Signals for BCI

1
State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, System Engineering Institute, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi’an 710049, China
2
Department of Computing, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
3
Payame Noor University of Oskou, Oskou 19395-4697, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sangtae Ahn
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8761; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188761
Received: 19 August 2021 / Revised: 10 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 20 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence on Brain–Computer Interface (BCI))
One of the main challenges in studying brain signals is the large size of the data due to the use of many electrodes and the time-consuming sampling. Choosing the right dimensional reduction method can lead to a reduction in the data processing time. Evolutionary algorithms are one of the methods used to reduce the dimensions in the field of EEG brain signals, which have shown better performance than other common methods. In this article, (1) a new Bond Graph algorithm (BGA) is introduced that has demonstrated better performance on eight benchmark functions compared to genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. Our algorithm has fast convergence and does not get stuck in local optimums. (2) Reductions of features, electrodes, and the frequency range have been evaluated simultaneously for brain signals (left-handed and right-handed). BGA and other algorithms are used to reduce features. (3) Feature extraction and feature selection (with algorithms) for time domain, frequency domain, wavelet coefficients, and autoregression have been studied as well as electrode reduction and frequency interval reduction. (4) First, the features/properties (algorithms) are reduced, the electrodes are reduced, and the frequency range is reduced, which is followed by the construction of new signals based on the proposed formulas. Then, a Common Spatial Pattern is used to remove noise and feature extraction and is classified by a classifier. (5) A separate study with a deep sampling method has been implemented as feature selection in several layers with functions and different window sizes. This part is also associated with reducing the feature and reducing the frequency range. All items expressed in data set IIa from BCI competition IV (the left hand and right hand) have been evaluated between one and three channels, with better results for similar cases (in close proximity). Our method demonstrated an increased accuracy by 5 to 8% and an increased kappa by 5%. View Full-Text
Keywords: bond graph methodology; algorithms; dimension reduction; feature selection; electrode selection; frequency selection; common spatial pattern (CSP); time domain and frequency domain; frequency bands or filter bank (FB) bond graph methodology; algorithms; dimension reduction; feature selection; electrode selection; frequency selection; common spatial pattern (CSP); time domain and frequency domain; frequency bands or filter bank (FB)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Naebi, A.; Feng, Z.; Hosseinpour, F.; Abdollahi, G. Dimension Reduction Using New Bond Graph Algorithm and Deep Learning Pooling on EEG Signals for BCI. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8761. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188761

AMA Style

Naebi A, Feng Z, Hosseinpour F, Abdollahi G. Dimension Reduction Using New Bond Graph Algorithm and Deep Learning Pooling on EEG Signals for BCI. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(18):8761. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188761

Chicago/Turabian Style

Naebi, Ahmad, Zuren Feng, Farhoud Hosseinpour, and Gahder Abdollahi. 2021. "Dimension Reduction Using New Bond Graph Algorithm and Deep Learning Pooling on EEG Signals for BCI" Applied Sciences 11, no. 18: 8761. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188761

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop