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Experimental Thermodynamic Investigation on the Refrigerant Charge in a Transcritical CO2 Electric Bus Air Conditioning System
Article

An Ultra-Low Temperature Transcritical R744 Refrigeration System for Future Detectors at CERN LHC

1
Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Takahiko Miyazaki
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7399; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167399
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 5 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 11 August 2021
The cooling systems of the future tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be entirely based on CO2 refrigeration technology. The system is a booster refrigeration system, composed of a two stage primary part with transcritical R744 equipment and a low temperature secondary CO2 pumped loop. The primary refrigeration sub-system installed on surface provides cold R744 at 53C to the CO2 pumped loops installed 100 m underground and rejects the heat exchanged. The process must be reliable and remain stable regardless of the amount of heat exchanged, which will amount to hundreds of kilowatts and is expected to vary throughout the lifetime of the detectors. The paper discusses the concept adopted for the innovative transcritical R744 cycle and describes the technical details of the first prototype built. View Full-Text
Keywords: CERN; refrigeration; R744; particle trackers CERN; refrigeration; R744; particle trackers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barroca, P.; Hafner, A.; Verlaat, B.; Petagna, P.; Hulek, W.; Zwalinski, L.; Hanf, P.; Battistin, M.; Davoine, L.; Teixeira, D. An Ultra-Low Temperature Transcritical R744 Refrigeration System for Future Detectors at CERN LHC. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 7399. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167399

AMA Style

Barroca P, Hafner A, Verlaat B, Petagna P, Hulek W, Zwalinski L, Hanf P, Battistin M, Davoine L, Teixeira D. An Ultra-Low Temperature Transcritical R744 Refrigeration System for Future Detectors at CERN LHC. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(16):7399. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167399

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barroca, Pierre, Armin Hafner, Bart Verlaat, Paolo Petagna, Wojciech Hulek, Lukasz Zwalinski, Pierre Hanf, Michele Battistin, Loic Davoine, and Daniella Teixeira. 2021. "An Ultra-Low Temperature Transcritical R744 Refrigeration System for Future Detectors at CERN LHC" Applied Sciences 11, no. 16: 7399. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167399

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