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Open AccessArticle

Investigating Applicability of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Thermal Comfort of Poultry Birds in Pakistan

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Bosan Road, Multan 60800, Pakistan
Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan
International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
Institute for Water Resources and Water Supply, Hamburg University of Technology, Am Schwarzenberg-Campus 3, 20173 Hamburg, Germany
Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam-Bornim, Germany
Bioenergy and Environment Science & Technology Laboratory, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4445;
Received: 4 June 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sciences and Innovations in Heat Pump/Refrigeration: Volume II)
In the 21st century, the poultry sector is a vital concern for the developing economies including Pakistan. The summer conditions of the city of Multan (Pakistan) are not comfortable for poultry birds. Conventionally, swamp coolers are used in the poultry sheds/houses of the city, which are not efficient enough, whereas compressor-based systems are not economical. Therefore, this study is aimed to explore a low-cost air-conditioning (AC) option from the viewpoint of heat stress in poultry birds. In this regard, the study investigates the applicability of three evaporative cooling (EC) options, i.e., direct EC (DEC), indirect EC (IEC), and Maisotsenko-cycle EC (MEC). Performance of the EC systems is investigated using wet-bulb effectiveness (WBE) for the climatic conditions of Multan. Heat stress is investigated as a function of poultry weight. Thermal comfort of the poultry birds is calculated in terms of temperature-humidity index (THI) corresponding to the ambient and output conditions. The heat production from the poultry birds is calculated using the Pederson model (available in the literature) at various temperatures. The results indicate a maximum temperature gradient of 10.2 °C (MEC system), 9 °C (DEC system), and 6.5 °C (IEC systems) is achieved. However, in the monsoon/rainfall season, the performance of the EC systems is significantly reduced due to higher relative humidity in ambient air. View Full-Text
Keywords: evaporative cooling; poultry birds; heat production; temperature-humidity-index; Pakistan evaporative cooling; poultry birds; heat production; temperature-humidity-index; Pakistan
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Raza, H.M.U.; Ashraf, H.; Shahzad, K.; Sultan, M.; Miyazaki, T.; Usman, M.; Shamshiri, R.R.; Zhou, Y.; Ahmad, R. Investigating Applicability of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Thermal Comfort of Poultry Birds in Pakistan. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 4445.

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