The global demand for and, therefore, the production of primary energy is continuously increasing. Consequently, the need to intervene with appropriate measures has arisen in order to achieve sustainable economic, social, and environmental objectives. The reduction of fuel and electricity consumption, the containment of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (like carbon dioxide, methane, other hydrocarbons, and nitrous oxide), and the improvement of environmental quality in urban centers can be considered to be among these objectives. The search for efficient measures for the overall improvement of the environment is directed towards the replacement of traditional fossil fuels with the production of bioenergy (also known as green energy) from different materials and biomasses obtained from specific agricultural activities and/or plant residues. These materials have physico-chemical and biological characteristics of interest regarding their use as sources of renewable energy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the chemical and bioenergetic characteristics of biofuels, the main techniques and processes employed for their production, and the characteristics of the different feedstock materials, especially potential energy crops.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited