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Volume 11, January

Behav. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2021) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An infectious disease pandemic can lead to an iatrogenic pandemic of panic or pandemic-related psychological distress in the general population. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with symptoms of depression and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic among adults living in China. Symptoms of depression and psychological distress were elevated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing and the amount of time spent daily on social media searching for and reading information on COVID-19 were independently associated with increases in psychological distress. Findings suggest psychological distress is an unintended aftereffect of social distancing. Public health and clinical intervention models are needed not only to mitigate the mental health consequences of COVID-19 but to concurrently mitigate the psychological aftereffects of social [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Binge-Watching: Development and Validation of the Binge-Watching Addiction Questionnaire
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020027 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 139
Abstract
The approach to the vision of TV series has deeply changed in the last years, and watching multiple episodes of TV content in a single session becomes a popular viewing pattern referred as binge-watching. Early studies defined binge-watching as a potentially addictive behavior [...] Read more.
The approach to the vision of TV series has deeply changed in the last years, and watching multiple episodes of TV content in a single session becomes a popular viewing pattern referred as binge-watching. Early studies defined binge-watching as a potentially addictive behavior showing characteristics similar to other behavioral addictions, such as loss of control and pleasure anticipation. This study aims to validate a short self-report questionnaire focused on assessing binge-watching behavior and determining whether it shows characteristics similar to addictive behavior, the Binge-Watching Addiction Questionnaire (BWAQ). An online survey was adopted to administer the questionnaire in the general population (N = 1277). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses assessed both the validity and the structure of the scale in two independent samples. The statistical analyses confirmed a four-factor model (i.e., “Craving”, “Dependency”, “Anticipation”, “Avoidance”) of the BWAQ with good psychometric properties. The BWAQ can differentiate between people who adopt maladaptive watching activities from those who use TV-series as leisure and entertainment activities. Therefore, this questionnaire may enable researchers to improve this emerging field of research significantly. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Shared Developmental Trajectories for Fractional Reasoning and Fine Motor Ability in 4 and 5 Year Olds
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020026 - 15 Feb 2021
Viewed by 311
Abstract
We investigated preschool-aged children’s understanding of early fractional tasks and how that performance correlates with fine motor skills and use of gestures while counting. Participants were 33 preschoolers aged 4 to 5 in two Southeastern public elementary schools. Children were tested individually in [...] Read more.
We investigated preschool-aged children’s understanding of early fractional tasks and how that performance correlates with fine motor skills and use of gestures while counting. Participants were 33 preschoolers aged 4 to 5 in two Southeastern public elementary schools. Children were tested individually in an interview-like setting. Mathematics tasks were presented in a paper and pencil format and the Grooved Pegboard test assessed fine motor skills. Finally, utilization of gestures was evaluated by taking a behavioral rating of the child’s hand morphology, accuracy of gestures, and synchrony of gestures and spoken word while performing a counting task. Results indicate that performance on fractional reasoning tasks significantly predicts both fine motor ability and accuracy of gestures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Developmental Psychology)
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Open AccessReview
A Critical Review of Effective Child Mass Trauma Interventions: What We Know and Do Not Know from the Evidence
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020025 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Over the last 20 years, numerous interventions have been developed and evaluated for use with children exposed to mass trauma with six publications reporting meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of child mass trauma interventions using inactive controls to examine intervention effects on posttraumatic [...] Read more.
Over the last 20 years, numerous interventions have been developed and evaluated for use with children exposed to mass trauma with six publications reporting meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of child mass trauma interventions using inactive controls to examine intervention effects on posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and functional impairment. The current report reviews the results of these meta-analytic studies to examine the status of the evidence for child mass trauma mental health interventions and to evaluate potential moderators of intervention effect and implications for practice. The meta-analyses reviewed for the current report revealed a small to medium overall effect of interventions on posttraumatic stress, a non-statistically significant to small overall effect on depression, a non-statistically significant overall effect on anxiety, and a small overall effect on functional impairment. The subgroup analyses suggest that interventions should be matched to the populations being served and to the context. Additional research is needed to tailor future interventions to further address outcomes other than posttraumatic stress including depression, anxiety, and functional impairment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aroused and Impulsive Effects of Colour Stimuli on Lateral and Logical Abilities
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020024 - 07 Feb 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of environmental colour on people’s lateral and logical abilities. This was done by evaluating study participants’ response time and error rate when completing six types of psychometric tests that were performed in various [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of environmental colour on people’s lateral and logical abilities. This was done by evaluating study participants’ response time and error rate when completing six types of psychometric tests that were performed in various hue backgrounds on a computer. To maximise the colour stimulation provided by the monitor, the experiment was carried out in a dark laboratory. Analysis of participants’ response time and error rate showed that different colours could significantly influence arousal and impulsiveness, which suggests that colour has indirect impacts on cognitive abilities. Further analysis revealed that different colours had various effects depending on the type of psychometric test given. These findings suggest that future research on environmental design should consider how to effectively use colour to impact people’s performance and behaviour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Mental Health Status among Older United States Adults with Pain
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020023 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Poor mental health is common among older adults with pain, resulting in high economic burden and impaired quality of life. This retrospective, cross-sectional database study aimed to identify characteristics associated with good mental health status among United States (US) adults aged ≥50 years [...] Read more.
Poor mental health is common among older adults with pain, resulting in high economic burden and impaired quality of life. This retrospective, cross-sectional database study aimed to identify characteristics associated with good mental health status among United States (US) adults aged ≥50 years with self-reported pain in the last four weeks using a weighted sample of 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify statistically significant predictors of good (versus poor) perceived mental health status. From a weighted population of 57,074,842 individuals, 85.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 84.4%, 86.7%) had good perceived mental health. Good mental health was associated most strongly with physical health status (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 9.216, 95% CI = 7.044, 12.058). Employed individuals were 1.7 times more likely to report good mental health versus unemployed (AOR = 1.715, 95% CI = 1.199, 2.452). Individuals who had completed less than high school education (AOR = 0.750, 95% CI = 0.569, 0.987) or who reported having a limitation (AOR = 0.513, 95% CI = 0.384, 0.684) were less likely to report good mental health. These key characteristics can be utilized to predict mental health status, which may be investigated to better manage concurrent pain and poor mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Resiliency)
Open AccessArticle
Attention-Dependent Physiological Correlates in Sleep-Deprived Young Healthy Humans
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020022 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Cognitive functions could be specifically altered but masked from the unspecific effect of workload, a common factor affecting cognitive functions that modulate peripheral outputs. To identify workload-related and specific, task-dependent components, physiological correlates of cognitive functioning were derived by studying 15 healthy volunteers [...] Read more.
Cognitive functions could be specifically altered but masked from the unspecific effect of workload, a common factor affecting cognitive functions that modulate peripheral outputs. To identify workload-related and specific, task-dependent components, physiological correlates of cognitive functioning were derived by studying 15 healthy volunteers performing attentional tasks in baseline and post-sleep-deprivation conditions (one week interval). Sleep deprivation was introduced to increase workload. We performed recordings of heart pulse, facial temperature, and head movements during tasks assessing attentional network efficiency (ANT, Attentional Network Task; CCT, Continuous Compensatory Tracker) workload assessments after execution of tasks. Changes in cognitive and physiological indices were studied in both conditions; physiological correlates of cognitive performance were identified by correlating changes from baseline to post-sleep-deprivation condition of task indices with those of physiological measures after correction for between-conditions workload changes. We found that mental and physical demands of workload increased after sleep deprivation. We identified no changes in cognitive and physiological indices across conditions; specific physiological correlates of attentional systems, as indicated by the negative correlation between changes in ANT-alerting and changes in amplitude of head movements and the positive correlation between changes in CCT-speed indexing alertness and changes in facial temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embodiment, Motor Control and Brain Injury)
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Open AccessSystematic Review
Gender Affirmative Action and Management: A Systematic Literature Review on How Diversity and Inclusion Management Affect Gender Equity in Organizations
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020021 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Gender affirmative action (AA) in management remains a controversial topic among scholars, practitioners, and employees. While some individuals may support the use of AA policies as a means of increasing representation of women, others are not supportive at all, further understanding gender AA [...] Read more.
Gender affirmative action (AA) in management remains a controversial topic among scholars, practitioners, and employees. While some individuals may support the use of AA policies as a means of increasing representation of women, others are not supportive at all, further understanding gender AA as an unacceptable violation of merit—even when targeted by it. With the aim of analyzing how scholars have approached the subject, we systematically reviewed 76 published articles (SCOPUS database), covering the extant literature on gender AA and management. Findings indicate a consensus regarding the common antecedents of attitudes towards gender AA with prior experiences with AA and diversity management (DM) (as well as general perceptions of AA). Performance and satisfaction appear as the predominant outcomes. In addition, while investigating the differences among AA, equal employment opportunity (EEO) and diversity management (DM), scholars are mainly focused on the effectiveness of AA as a means of increasing the inclusion of minorities in general. We conclude that despite marginal studies on employees’ attitudes toward gender AA, there is a gap in the literature, particularly an absence of research on the bivalent position of meritocracy (or merit violation) as both an antecedent and outcome of attitudes towards AA, which deserves further scrutiny. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Anxiety-Induced Sleep Disturbance among in-School Adolescents in Ghana: Evidence from the 2012 Global School-Based Health Survey
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020020 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
(1) Background: Psychological problems of adolescents have become a global health and safety concern. Empirical evidence has shown that adolescents experience diverse mental health conditions (e.g., anxiety, depression, and emotional disorders). However, research on anxiety-induced sleep disturbance among in-school adolescents has received less [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Psychological problems of adolescents have become a global health and safety concern. Empirical evidence has shown that adolescents experience diverse mental health conditions (e.g., anxiety, depression, and emotional disorders). However, research on anxiety-induced sleep disturbance among in-school adolescents has received less attention, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This study’s central focus was to examine factors associated with t anxiety-induced sleep disturbance among in-school adolescents in Ghana. (2) Methods: Analysis was performed using the 2012 Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS). A sample of 1342 in-school adolescents was included in the analysis. The outcome variable was anxiety-induced sleep disturbance reported during the past 12 months. Frequencies, percentages, chi-square, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results from the multivariable logistic regression analysis were presented as crude and adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and with a statistical significance declared at p < 0.05. (3) Results: Adolescents who went hungry were more likely to report anxiety-induced sleep disturbance compared to their counterparts who did not report hunger (aOR = 1.68, CI = 1.10, 2.57). The odds of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance were higher among adolescents who felt lonely compared to those that never felt lonely (aOR = 2.82, CI = 1.98, 4.01). Adolescents who had sustained injury were more likely to have anxiety-induced sleep disturbance (aOR = 1.49, CI = 1.03, 2.14) compared to those who had no injury. Compared to adolescents who never had suicidal ideations, those who reported experiencing suicidal ideations had higher odds of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance (aOR = 1.68, CI = 1.05, 2.71). (4) Conclusions: Anxiety-induced sleep disturbance among in-school adolescents were significantly influenced by the psychosocial determinants such as hunger, loneliness, injury, and suicidal ideation in this study. The findings can help design appropriate interventions through effective strategies (e.g., early school-based screening, cognitive-behavioral therapy, face-face counseling services) to reduce psychosocial problems among in-school adolescents in Ghana. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Problems and Needs Persist for Oklahoma City Bombing Survivors Many Years Later
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020019 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Background: This study assesses long-term physical and emotional symptoms and unmet needs in direct survivors of the 1995 Oklahoma City terrorist bombing 18 ½ years after the event. Methods: A telephone questionnaire assessed psychiatric symptoms, health problems and coping strategies in 138 terrorism [...] Read more.
Background: This study assesses long-term physical and emotional symptoms and unmet needs in direct survivors of the 1995 Oklahoma City terrorist bombing 18 ½ years after the event. Methods: A telephone questionnaire assessed psychiatric symptoms, health problems and coping strategies in 138 terrorism survivors (of whom 80% were physically injured) from a state registry of directly exposed persons, and 171 non-exposed community controls. Structured survey questions measured psychiatric symptoms, posttraumatic growth, general health problems and health care utilization. Open-ended questions explored survivors’ most important terrorism-related problems and needs. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis methods were undertaken. Results: Survivors reported similar rates of major health problems and general health care utilization, more anxiety and depression symptoms, and more ancillary health care use than controls on structured assessments. Survivors also reported posttraumatic growth, using several positive coping skills. Open-ended questions identified survivors’ specific continuing bombing-related problems, and needs which were not disclosed on the questionnaire; these included many lasting physical injuries, health problems (especially hearing difficulties), specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, other emotional symptoms, work and financial problems, interpersonal issues, and desires to help others. Conclusions: Results suggest that extended recovery services are needed long after terrorism exposure, and that open-ended assessment is useful to identify those requiring services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ants Can Anticipate the Following Quantity in an Arithmetic Sequence
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020018 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti have been previously shown to be able to add and subtract numbers of elements and to expect the time and location of the next food delivery. We wanted to know if they could anticipate the following quantity [...] Read more.
Workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti have been previously shown to be able to add and subtract numbers of elements and to expect the time and location of the next food delivery. We wanted to know if they could anticipate the following quantity of elements present near their food when the number of these elements increases or decreases over time according to an arithmetic sequence. Two experiments were therefore carried out, one with an increasing sequence, the other with a decreasing sequence. Each experiment consisted of two steps, one for the ants to learn the numbers of elements successively present near their food, the other to test their choice when they were simultaneously in the presence of the numbers from a previously learned sequence and the following quantity. The ants anticipated the following quantity in each presented numerical sequence. This forethinking of the next quantity applies to numerosity, thus, to concrete items. This anticipatory behavior may be explained by associative learning and by the ants’ ability to memorize events and to estimate the elapsing time. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Behavioral Sciences in 2020
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020017 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Behavioral Sciences maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Price on Purchase Intentions: Comparative Study between Cognitive, Sensory, and Neurophysiological Experiments
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020016 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Price is considered one of the most important attributes in consumer’s choice. On the other hand, consumer’s knowledge about price tends to be imprecise. This study aims at providing new insights analyzing consumers’ perception of retail store brand (focused on Skin Care Products) [...] Read more.
Price is considered one of the most important attributes in consumer’s choice. On the other hand, consumer’s knowledge about price tends to be imprecise. This study aims at providing new insights analyzing consumers’ perception of retail store brand (focused on Skin Care Products) comparing with two other skin care products, a premium, and a popular national brand. Second, to analyze the association price versus quality variables in the purchasing decision process. Third, to demonstrate the influence of both, unconscious and cognitive process during the purchase choice intention. Through Neuromarketing tools and protocols (quantitative and qualitative), the study exposes participants to a blind test of the three products and asks participants to talk about their sensory impressions like scent, feelings, and products texture. Using facial electromyography (EMG) and eye-tracker devices we measured consumers’ responses when we introduced price and brand name variables, by this way comparing unconscious and cognitive responses. The findings showed that an unconscious decision could be change when new variables were revealed. The study showed how conscious price variable was the major influence in their purchase intention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption, Identity, Demographics and Self-Concept)
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Open AccessArticle
Future-Oriented Coping with Weather Stress among Mountain Hikers: Temperamental Personality Predictors and Profiles
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020015 - 24 Jan 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The aim of the study was to explore temperamental personality traits as predictors of fu-ture-oriented coping with weather stress in a group of Polish mountain hikers. The subjects were 209 young mountain hikers (M = 21.20; SD = 3.70) who took three temperament–personality [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to explore temperamental personality traits as predictors of fu-ture-oriented coping with weather stress in a group of Polish mountain hikers. The subjects were 209 young mountain hikers (M = 21.20; SD = 3.70) who took three temperament–personality questionnaires, i.e., FCZ-KT Temperament Questionnaire, Sensation Seeking Scale IV and NEO-FFI- Personality Inventory, alongside a recently constructed scale for diagnosing future-oriented coping with weather stress in outdoor context, Preventive and Proactive Coping with Bad Weather Scale in Outdoor Sports. The regression analysis indicated that preventive coping with weather stress in hiking was predicted by activity, emotional reactivity, briskness, sensory sensitivity, experience seeking, agreeableness and conscientiousness. In turn, proactive coping with bad weather in hiking was predicted by endurance, activity, thrill and adventure seeking and extraversion. In turn, the cluster analysis revealed three distinct clusters of hikers characterized by diverse re-sults on the scales of preventive and proactive dealing with adverse weather, namely, prudent hikers (high preventive coping/high proactive coping), reckless hikers (low pre-ventive coping/high proactive coping) and wary hikers (high preventive coping/low proactive coping). The hikers in these clusters differed in terms of temperamental per-sonality traits. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Experiences in the Decision-Making Regarding the Place of Care of the Elderly: A Systematic Review
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020014 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 394
Abstract
The objective of this review was to understand how participants experience the decision-making process regarding the place of care for the elderly. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies. The articles were included if they were original studies with qualitative/mixed methodology, [...] Read more.
The objective of this review was to understand how participants experience the decision-making process regarding the place of care for the elderly. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies. The articles were included if they were original studies with qualitative/mixed methodology, written in English/Spanish, and that approached the decision-making process regarding the place of care for the elderly, already experienced by the participants. Forty-four articles were included, identifying experiences, both negative and positive. Negative experiences have been the most frequently reported experiences by all population groups; fear was the most relevant experience for the elderly, whereas concern was the most relevant for family members and professionals. This review has not only found a great variability of experiences, but also, it has deepened the differences between groups and the situations motivating/generating these experiences. This review highlights a wide range of experiences of those directly involved in the entire decision-making process on the place of care for the elderly. In future research it would be interesting to carry out qualitative primary studies conducted with professionals and other relevant people involved in this decision-making process, in order to know first-hand how they experience this process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with Symptoms of Depression and Psychological Distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020013 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 512
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with symptoms of depression and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Convenience sampling and snowball sampling were used to recruit a sample of adults in China (n = 2130) from [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with symptoms of depression and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Convenience sampling and snowball sampling were used to recruit a sample of adults in China (n = 2130) from 14 February 2020 to 3 March 2020 to complete an online survey. Linear regression was used to examine the predictors of symptoms of depression and psychological distress. Living in a non-urban area and the number of confirmed cases in their city of residence were positively associated with symptoms of depression. Female gender, not being married, practicing social distancing, the amount of time spent daily on social media searching for and reading information on COVID-19, the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in their city of residence, and having confirmed or suspected cases of COVID-19 in personal networks were positively associated with psychological distress. Social distancing is a widely used public health approach for population-wide virus-containment of COVID-19. However, reductions in population-wide psychological well-being are inadvertent consequences of social distancing. There is an emerging need to negate factors that increase adverse mental health vulnerabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sooo Sweeet! Presence of Long Vowels in Brand Names Lead to Expectations of Sweetness
Behav. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11020012 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Throughout the history of languages, poets and writers have used linguistic tools to enhance euphony in their creations. One of the widely used tools to convey melody in any written (or spoken) creative art form is the use of long vowels. This paper [...] Read more.
Throughout the history of languages, poets and writers have used linguistic tools to enhance euphony in their creations. One of the widely used tools to convey melody in any written (or spoken) creative art form is the use of long vowels. This paper examines the linkages between long (vs. short) vowel sounds and taste expectations of sweetness. Across four studies, we demonstrate that people expect products with brand names containing long vowels to taste sweeter than those including short vowel sounds. In studies 1 and 2, we demonstrate this association with the use of self-reported measures, and in studies 3 and 4, we employ indirect measures (implicit taste–shape correspondence and Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) paradigm) to show the effect holds at a subconscious level of processing. Previous research in this field has typically linked vowel position (high vs. low or front vs. back) with product or brand attribute expectations. This paper contributes to the growing body of literature in this field by demonstrating the importance of vowel length in sound symbolism, and more precisely, how it pertains to the taste continuum. Full article
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