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Open AccessArticle

Demographic Pattern and Hospitalization Outcomes of Depression among 2.1 Million Americans with Four Major Cancers in the United States

1
Department of Psychiatry, Griffin Memorial Hospital, Norman, OK 73071, USA
2
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
3
Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07101, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6040093
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer and Cancer-Related Research)
Objective: To compare the prevalence of depression in the four most common cancers in the US and evaluate differences in demographics and hospital outcomes. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2010–2014). We selected patients who had received ICD-9 codes of breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers and major depressive disorder (MDD). Pearson’s chi-square test and independent sample t-test were used for categorical and continuous data, respectively. Results: MDD prevalence rate was highest in lung cancer (11.5%), followed by breast (10.3%), colorectal (8.1%), and prostate cancer (4.9%). Within colorectal and lung cancer groups, patients with MDD were significantly older (>80 years, p < 0.001) than non-MDD patients. Breast, lung, and colorectal cancer showed a higher proportion of female and Caucasian in the MDD group. Severe morbidity was seen in a greater proportion of the MDD group in all cancer types. The mean inpatient stay and cost were higher in the MDD compared to non-MDD group. Conclusion: Particular attention should be given to elderly, female, and to lung cancer patients with depression. Further studies of each cancer type are needed to expand our understanding of the different risk factors for depression as a higher proportion of patients had severe morbidity. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; cancer; colorectal cancer; epidemiology; inpatient psychiatry; lung cancer; MDD; oncology; prostate cancer breast cancer; cancer; colorectal cancer; epidemiology; inpatient psychiatry; lung cancer; MDD; oncology; prostate cancer
MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, R.S.; Wen, K.-Y.; Aggarwal, R. Demographic Pattern and Hospitalization Outcomes of Depression among 2.1 Million Americans with Four Major Cancers in the United States. Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 93.

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