Next Article in Journal
Association between Diabetic Retinopathy and Chronic Periodontitis—A Cross-Sectional Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Differential Expression of Tissue Transglutaminase Splice Variants in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Previous Article in Journal
Study of Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Patients with Arterial Hypertension
Previous Article in Special Issue
New Insights into Development of Transglutaminase 2 Inhibitors as Pharmaceutical Lead Compounds
Open AccessArticle

Transglutaminase 2 Up-Regulation Is Associated with Inflammatory Response in PBMC from Healthy Subjects with Hypovitaminosis D

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 98123 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6040103
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transglutaminases in Health and Disease)
Recent evidence indicated that transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is involved in the adaptive immune response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have largely been used to characterize molecular mechanisms occurring in the activation of immune response. Given that the maintenance of immune system functions requires an optimal vitamin D status, we aimed to assess the involvement of TG2/NF-κB signaling in cytokine production in PBMC isolated from adult subjects with different vitamin D status. We observed TG2 up-regulation and a significant positive correlation between TG2 expression and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA levels in PBMC of recruited patients. The mRNA levels of TG2 and TNF-α were higher in PBMC of subjects having hypovitaminosis D, namely plasma 25(OH)vitamin D3 levels lower than 50 nmol/L, than in those with normal vitamin D levels. Moreover, NF-κB up-regulation and nuclear translocation were detected, concomitantly with TG2 as well as TNF-α increased expression, in PBMC of vitamin D-deficient subjects. The present findings confirm that an increase in TG2 expression exacerbates the activation of NF-κB and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and suggest a link between vitamin D deficiency, TG2 up-regulation, and inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune response; NF-κB; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; transglutaminase 2; vitamin D immune response; NF-κB; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; transglutaminase 2; vitamin D
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Caccamo, D.; Ferlazzo, N.; Currò, M.; Ricca, S.; Ientile, R. Transglutaminase 2 Up-Regulation Is Associated with Inflammatory Response in PBMC from Healthy Subjects with Hypovitaminosis D. Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 103.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop