Mineral carbonation is the conversion of carbon dioxide, in gas form or dissolved in water, to solid carbonates. Materials characterization plays an important role in assessing the potential to use these carbonates in commercial applications, and also aids in understanding fundamental phenomena about the reactions. This paper highlights findings of mechanistic nature made on topics related to mineral carbonation, and that were made possible by assessing particle size, particle size distribution, and other morphological characteristics. It is also shown how particle size data can be used to estimate the weathering rate of carbonated minerals. An extension of the carbonation weathering rate approach is presented, whereby using particle size distribution data it becomes possible to predict the particle size below which full carbonation is obtained, and above which partial carbonation occurs. The paper also overviews the most common techniques to determine the particle size distribution, as well as complementary and alternate techniques. In mineral carbonation research, most techniques have been used as ex situ
methods, yet tools that can analyze powders during reaction (in situ
and real-time) can provide even more insight into mineral carbonation mechanisms, so researchers are encouraged to adopt such advanced techniques.
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