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Open AccessArticle

Application of Ground-Penetrating Radar and a Combined Penetrometer–Moisture Probe for Evaluating Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture and Soil Hardness in Coastal and Inland Windbreaks

1
Doto Station, Forestry Research Institute, Hokkaido Research Organization, Nishi2-sen, Shintoku, Hokkaido 081-0038, Japan
2
Research Institute of Energy, Environment and Geology, Hokkaido Research Organization, Kita19-jo Nishi11-chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0819, Japan
3
Forestry Research Institute, Hokkaido Research Organization, Higashiyama, Koshunai, Bibai, Hokkaido 079-0198, Japan
4
Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan
5
Ikawa Forest, Agricultural and Forestry Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1621-2 Ikawa, Aoi, Shizuoka 428-0504, Japan
6
Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2020, 10(6), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10060238
Received: 7 May 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Surveying and Geophysical Methods for Soil and Rock)
The development of a method to easily investigate the spatial distribution of soil moisture and soil hardness in tree windbreaks is necessary because these windbreaks often decline due to inappropriate soil moisture condition and soil compaction. This research examined the applicability of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and a combined penetrometer–moisture probe (CPMP) for evaluating the spatial distribution of soil moisture and soil hardness in four windbreaks with different soil characteristics. A GPR-reflecting interface was observed at a less permeable layer in a coastal windbreak and at a depth affected by soil compaction in an inland windbreak with andosol. The spatial distribution of the groundwater table could also be evaluated by examining the attenuation of GPR reflection in a coastal windbreak. In contrast, GPR was not applicable in an inland windbreak with peat because of high soil water content near the soil surface. The CPMP could detect vertical distributions of soil hardness and soil water content regardless of soil type. The CPMP was useful for interpreting GPR profiles, and GPR was useful for interpolating the information about the horizontal distribution of soil moisture and soil hardness between survey points made with the CPMP. Thus, the combination of GPR and a CPMP is ideal for examining the two-dimensional spatial distribution of soil moisture and soil hardness at windbreaks with soils for which both methods are applicable. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil water content; soil compaction; coastal forest; growth base; groundwater table soil water content; soil compaction; coastal forest; growth base; groundwater table
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iwasaki, K.; Tamura, M.; Sato, H.; Masaka, K.; Oka, D.; Yamakawa, Y.; Kosugi, K. Application of Ground-Penetrating Radar and a Combined Penetrometer–Moisture Probe for Evaluating Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture and Soil Hardness in Coastal and Inland Windbreaks. Geosciences 2020, 10, 238.

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