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Article

In Vivo Toxicity and In Vitro Solubility Assessment of Pre-Treated Struvite as a Potential Alternative Phosphorus Source in Animal Feed

1
Department of Animal Industry Convergence, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
2
Department of Animal Resources, College of Life and Environmental Science, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 38453, Korea
3
Department of Environmental Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, IUBAT—International University of Business Agriculture and Technology, Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh
4
Department of Veterinary Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Animals 2019, 9(10), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100785
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 7 October 2019 / Accepted: 7 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element needed for the growth and development of all living organisms. Phosphorus is mined primarily from non-renewable phosphate rock reserves. The use of P as fertilizer and feed additives continues to rise with the increasing global population. We therefore need to find an alternative and renewable, as well as sustainable, source of P to fulfill the demands of agriculture and livestock. Phosphorus recovered as struvite from livestock wastewater could be a sustainable alternative to commercial P sources, while its application has only been limited to arable lands as fertilizer. This study elucidates that struvite can also be used as an alternative P source in animal feed other than fertilizer through proper pre-treatment. Phosphorus recovery from livestock wastewater and its reutilization as an animal feed ingredient would therefore be a good strategy to substitute commercial P sources and ensure societal sustainability.
Apart from using as fertilizer for plants, the application of struvite may be expanded to animal feed industries through proper pre-treatment. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using pre-treated struvite (microwave irradiated struvite (MS) and incinerated struvite (IS)) in animal feeds. For safety assessment, an in vivo toxicity experiment using thirty female Sprague Dawley rats (average body weight (BW) of 200 ± 10 g) was conducted. The rats were randomly divided into five groups, including a control. Based on the BW, MS and IS were applied daily by oral administration with 1 and 10 mg kg−1-BW (MS1 and MS10; IS1 and IS10) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle. A series of jar tests were conducted for four hours to check the solubility of the MS and IS at different pH (pH 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7) and compared to a commercial P source (monocalcium phosphate, MCP, control). The toxicity experiment results showed no significant differences among the treatments in BW and organ (liver, kidney, heart, and lung) weight of rats (p > 0.05). There were no adverse effects on blood parameters and the histopathological examination showed no inflammation in the organ tissues in MS and IS treated groups compared to the control. In an in vitro solubility test, no significant difference was observed in ortho-phosphate (O-P) solubility from the MCP and MS at pH 2 and 4 (p > 0.05), while O-P solubility from MS at pH 5 to 7 was higher than MCP and found to be significantly different (p < 0.05). O-P solubility from IS was the lowest among the treatments and significantly different from MCP and MS in all the experiments (p < 0.05). The results of this study not only suggest that the struvite pre-treated as MS could be a potential alternative source of P in animal feed but also motivate further studies with more stringent designs to better examine the potential of struvite application in diverse fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus; struvite; swine wastewater; pre-treatment; toxicity; solubility; animal feed phosphorus; struvite; swine wastewater; pre-treatment; toxicity; solubility; animal feed
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shim, S.; Won, S.; Reza, A.; Kim, S.; Ahn, S.; Jung, B.; Yoon, B.; Ra, C. In Vivo Toxicity and In Vitro Solubility Assessment of Pre-Treated Struvite as a Potential Alternative Phosphorus Source in Animal Feed. Animals 2019, 9, 785. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100785

AMA Style

Shim S, Won S, Reza A, Kim S, Ahn S, Jung B, Yoon B, Ra C. In Vivo Toxicity and In Vitro Solubility Assessment of Pre-Treated Struvite as a Potential Alternative Phosphorus Source in Animal Feed. Animals. 2019; 9(10):785. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100785

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shim, Soomin, Seunggun Won, Arif Reza, Seungsoo Kim, Sungil Ahn, Baedong Jung, Byungil Yoon, and Changsix Ra. 2019. "In Vivo Toxicity and In Vitro Solubility Assessment of Pre-Treated Struvite as a Potential Alternative Phosphorus Source in Animal Feed" Animals 9, no. 10: 785. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100785

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