Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Animals, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle An Exploration of Industry Expert Perception of Equine Welfare Using Vignettes
Animals 2017, 7(12), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120102
Received: 14 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
PDF Full-text (926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As part of a larger Delphi survey project, equine professionals (n = 14) were presented with twelve short scenarios in which a horse’s welfare could be compromised. They were asked to rank each scenario (with 0 indicating no welfare concerns and 5
[...] Read more.
As part of a larger Delphi survey project, equine professionals (n = 14) were presented with twelve short scenarios in which a horse’s welfare could be compromised. They were asked to rank each scenario (with 0 indicating no welfare concerns and 5 indicating a situation where immediate intervention was necessary), provide justification for their ranking, and give examples of what might have been the motivation behind the scenario. The wide range within vignette scores demonstrated the diversity of opinion even among a relatively small group of equine professionals. Qualitative analysis of responses to vignettes suggested that respondents typically ranked situations higher if they had a longer duration and the potential for greater or longer-lasting consequences (e.g., serious injury). Respondents were also the most sensitive to situations in which the horse’s physical well-being (e.g., painful experience) was, or could be, compromised. Financial reasons, ignorance, and human convenience were also areas discussed as potential motivators by survey respondents. Overall, responses from the vignettes allowed for a picture of welfare perception based on personal values. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Open Knowledge about Slaughter on the Internet—A Case Study on Controversies
Animals 2017, 7(12), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120101
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Knowledge about slaughter of animals for human food is often perceived as controversial and therefore not made widely available. An open educational resource on the Internet about the slaughter of animals has created tension at launch but also resolved tension. Aiming to explore
[...] Read more.
Knowledge about slaughter of animals for human food is often perceived as controversial and therefore not made widely available. An open educational resource on the Internet about the slaughter of animals has created tension at launch but also resolved tension. Aiming to explore how this resource at the boundary between academia and society is perceived, a study was carried out with participants from slaughterhouses, universities, authorities and NGOs. Focus group sessions were video recorded and transcripts were coded using an interpretive thematic analysis. The results show that an open educational resource in addition to contributing to learning and awareness raising can also induce dialogue (and thus resolve tension) about animal welfare and contribute to animal welfare resilience. Our results also indicate that participants had diverse opinions about the influence of multimedia on attitudes towards animal slaughter. The use of additional instruments such as comment fields may lead to more knowledgeable citizens and socially robust knowledge, but has to be carefully weighed against the risk of false or fake data. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Efficacy of Blunt Force Trauma, a Novel Mechanical Cervical Dislocation Device, and a Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt Device for On-Farm Euthanasia of Pre-Weaned Kits, Growers, and Adult Commercial Meat Rabbits
Animals 2017, 7(12), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120100
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The commercial meat rabbit industry is without validated on-farm euthanasia methods, potentially resulting in inadequate euthanasia protocols. We evaluated blunt force trauma (BFT), a mechanical cervical dislocation device (MCD), and a non-penetrating captive bolt device (NPCB) for euthanasia of pre-weaned kits, growers, and
[...] Read more.
The commercial meat rabbit industry is without validated on-farm euthanasia methods, potentially resulting in inadequate euthanasia protocols. We evaluated blunt force trauma (BFT), a mechanical cervical dislocation device (MCD), and a non-penetrating captive bolt device (NPCB) for euthanasia of pre-weaned kits, growers, and adult rabbits. Trials were conducted on three commercial meat rabbit farms using 170 cull rabbits. Insensibility was assessed by evaluating absence of brainstem and spinal reflexes, rhythmic breathing, and vocalizations. Survey radiographs on a subsample of rabbits (n = 12) confirmed tissue damage prior to gross dissection and microscopic evaluation. All 63 rabbits euthanized by the NPCB device were rendered immediately and irreversibly insensible. The MCD device was effective in 46 of 49 (94%) rabbits. Method failure was highest for BFT with euthanasia failures in 13 of 58 (22%) rabbits. Microscopically, brain sections from rabbits killed with the NPCB device had significantly more damage than those from rabbits killed with BFT (p = 0.001). We conclude that BFT is neither consistently humane nor effective as a euthanasia method. MCD is an accurate and reliable euthanasia method generally causing clean dislocation and immediate and irreversible insensibility, and the NPCB device was 100% effective and reliable in rabbits >150 g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humane Killing and Euthanasia of Animals on Farms)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Is a “Good Death” at the Time of Animal Slaughter an Essentially Contested Concept?
Animals 2017, 7(12), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120099
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The phrase “essentially contested concept” (ECC) entered the academic literature in 1956 in an attempt to better characterize certain contentious concepts of political theory. Commonly identified examples of contested concepts are morality, religion, democracy, science, nature, philosophy, and certain types of creative products
[...] Read more.
The phrase “essentially contested concept” (ECC) entered the academic literature in 1956 in an attempt to better characterize certain contentious concepts of political theory. Commonly identified examples of contested concepts are morality, religion, democracy, science, nature, philosophy, and certain types of creative products such as the novel and art. The structure proposed to identify an ECC has proven useful in a wide variety of deliberative discourse in the social, political, and religious arenas where seemingly intractable but productive debates are found. Where a strongly held moral position is contradicted by law, a portion of the citizenry see the law as illegitimate and do not feel compelled to respect it. This paper will attempt to apply the analytic structure of ECC to the concept of animal wellbeing at the time of slaughter specifically a “good death.” The results of this analysis supports an understanding that the current slaughter debate is a disagreement in moral belief and normative moral theory. The parties to the dispute have differing visions of the “good.” The method of slaughter is not an essentially contested concept where further discourse is likely to result in a negotiated resolution. The position statements of veterinary organizations are used as an example of current discourse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Ethics)
Open AccessConcept Paper Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies
Animals 2017, 7(12), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120098
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a
[...] Read more.
This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Assessment of Plumage and Integument Condition in Dual-Purpose Breeds and Conventional Layers
Animals 2017, 7(12), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120097
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
PDF Full-text (1767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The assessment of plumage and integument condition in laying hens provides useful information about the occurrence of feather pecking and cannibalism. Although feather loss and skin injuries can result from mechanical abrasion or clinical diseases, they are valid animal-based indicators for behavioural disorders.
[...] Read more.
The assessment of plumage and integument condition in laying hens provides useful information about the occurrence of feather pecking and cannibalism. Although feather loss and skin injuries can result from mechanical abrasion or clinical diseases, they are valid animal-based indicators for behavioural disorders. This particularly applies to damage on the back and tail region of the hens. The aim was to evaluate the behaviour of dual-purpose breeds (Lohmann Dual, LD) and conventional layer hybrids (Lohmann Brown plus, LB+), and to compare a mere visual assessment (Visual Scoring, VSc), with a method involving the handling of individual animals (Hands-on Scoring, HSc). During weekly VSc, the hens’ plumage and integument were scored on five body parts. HSc was carried out on seven study days applying the same scoring scale as for VSc. In LB+ hens, minor plumage damage started at 25 weeks and increased to the 71st week. With 99.5% of LB+ showing feather loss to a different extent, the back was the most severely affected body part. In contrast, only between 4.5% and 7% of LD showed minor feather loss at the end of the study. Integument damage reached a peak, with 6% affected LB+ in week 66. Injuries were found only sporadically in LD hens. Spearman’s rho for the comparison of plumages scores given in VSc and HSc was >0.90 (p < 0.01) in both hybrids for most of the tested body regions and weeks, except for the breast/belly region. However, VSc and HSc were equally valid for detecting skin injuries of all of the body regions (rs > 0.86, p < 0.01). Damaging behaviour only occurred in the LB+ flocks, though both of the genetic strains were kept under the same conditions. The visual scoring method was suitable for detecting both plumage and integument damage. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Should the Contribution of One Additional Lame Cow Depend on How Many Other Cows on the Farm Are Lame?
Animals 2017, 7(12), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120096
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Welfare Quality® proposes a system for aggregation according to which the total welfare score for a group of animals is a non-linear effect of the prevalence of welfare scores across the individuals within the group. Three assumptions serve to justify this: (1)
[...] Read more.
Welfare Quality® proposes a system for aggregation according to which the total welfare score for a group of animals is a non-linear effect of the prevalence of welfare scores across the individuals within the group. Three assumptions serve to justify this: (1) experts do not follow a linear reasoning when they assess a welfare problem; (2) it serves to prevent compensation (severe welfare problems hidden by scoring well on other aspects of welfare); (3) experts agree on the weight of different welfare measures. We use two sources of data to examine these assumptions: animal welfare data from 44 Danish dairy farms with Danish Holstein Friesian cows, and data from a questionnaire study with a convenience sample of 307 experts in animal welfare, of which we received responses from over 50%. Our main results were: (1) the total group-level welfare score as assigned by experts is a non-linear function of the individual animal welfare states within the group; (2) the WQ system does not prevent what experts perceive as unacceptable compensation; (3) the level of agreement among experts appears to vary across measures. Our findings give rise to concerns about the proposed aggregation system offered by WQ. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Feed Form on Diet Digestibility and Cecal Parameters in Rabbits
Animals 2017, 7(12), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120095
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatment groups of 5 animals each and fed pelleted, extruded, or muesli diets in a completely randomized design experiment. Rabbits were placed in individual cages with ad libitum access to water
[...] Read more.
Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatment groups of 5 animals each and fed pelleted, extruded, or muesli diets in a completely randomized design experiment. Rabbits were placed in individual cages with ad libitum access to water and food for 45 days acclimation followed by 30 days experimental period. Feed intake of rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets was greater (p < 0.05) than rabbits fed the muesli diet (125.6 and 130.4 vs. 91.9 g/d), but weight change and feed efficiency were not affected by treatment. Diet digestibility among the treatments was inconsistent when comparing results obtained from total fecal collection and AIA (please define) as an internal marker. Rabbits fed extruded and pelleted diets had lower (p < 0.05) cecal pH (6.42 and 6.38 vs. 7.02, respectively), and higher (p < 0.05) production of SCFA (18.5 and 19.0 vs. 11.7 mM, respectively) than those fed muesli. The fermentation products from rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets had a greater proportion of butyrate and less propionate than rabbits fed muesli. The results of this study indicate that the basal dietary composition had a greater impact on diet utilization and cecal fermentation than food form. Full article
Open AccessArticle Selection of Meat Inspection Data for an Animal Welfare Index in Cattle and Pigs in Denmark
Animals 2017, 7(12), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120094
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
PDF Full-text (779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
National welfare indices of cattle and pigs are constructed in Denmark, and meat inspection data may be used to contribute to these. We select potentially welfare-relevant abattoir recordings and assess the sources of variation within these with a view towards inclusion in the
[...] Read more.
National welfare indices of cattle and pigs are constructed in Denmark, and meat inspection data may be used to contribute to these. We select potentially welfare-relevant abattoir recordings and assess the sources of variation within these with a view towards inclusion in the indices. Meat inspection codes were pre-selected based on expert judgement of having potential animal welfare relevance. Random effects logistic regression was then used to determine the magnitude of variation derived at the level of the farm or abattoir, of which farm variation might be associated with welfare, whereas abattoir variation is most likely caused by differences in recording practices. Codes were excluded for use in the indices based on poor model fit or a large abattoir effect. There was a large abattoir effect for most of the codes modelled and these codes were deemed to be not appropriate to be carried forward to the welfare index. A few were found to be potentially useful for a welfare index: Eight for slaughter pigs, 15 for sows, five for cattle <18 months of age, and six for older cattle. The absolute accuracy of each code/combination could not be assessed, only the relative variation between farms and abattoirs. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Maternal Care on Behavioural Development of Domestic Dogs (Canis Familiaris) Living in a Home Environment
Animals 2017, 7(12), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120093
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maternal care has been shown to affect the development of the brain, behaviour, social skills and emotional systems of the young of many mammalian species including dogs. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of maternal care on the
[...] Read more.
Maternal care has been shown to affect the development of the brain, behaviour, social skills and emotional systems of the young of many mammalian species including dogs. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of maternal care on the behavioural responses of family dog puppies towards environmental and social stimuli. In order to do this, maternal care (licking puppy’s ano-genital area, licking the puppy, nursing and mother-puppy contact) during the first three weeks after birth was assessed in 12 litters of domestic dog puppies reared in home environments (total = 72 puppies). The behavioural responses of puppies were assessed in an arena and an isolation test, which were performed when the puppies were two-month old. Data were analysed using principal components analysis and projection to latent structures regression. A systematic relationship was found between maternal care and behaviour in both tests. In the arena test, maternal care was found to be positively associated with approach to the stranger, attention oriented to the stranger, time spent near the enclosure, yawning, whining and yelping (R2Y = 0.613, p = 8.2 × 10−9). Amount of maternal care was negatively associated with the number of squares crossed and the time spent individually playing with the rope. In the isolation test, the amount of maternal care was positively associated with standing posture, paw lifting, and howling, and it was negatively associated with yawning, lying down and nose licking (R2Y = 0.507, p = 0.000626). These results suggest that the amount of maternal care received during early life influences the pattern of behavioural responses and coping strategies of puppies at two-months of age. On the basis of these findings it could be speculated that early maternal care contributes to adaption to the environment in which family puppies are developing, with particular regard to social relationships with people. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Using Free Adoptions to Reduce Crowding and Euthanasia at Cat Shelters: An Australian Case Study
Animals 2017, 7(12), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120092
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
PDF Full-text (1155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many healthy adult cats are euthanised annually in shelters, and novel approaches are required to reduce euthanasia rates. Waiving adoption fees is one such approach. However, concerns that less responsible owners will be attracted to free events persist among welfare groups. We evaluated
[...] Read more.
Many healthy adult cats are euthanised annually in shelters, and novel approaches are required to reduce euthanasia rates. Waiving adoption fees is one such approach. However, concerns that less responsible owners will be attracted to free events persist among welfare groups. We evaluated evidence for differences in cat fate, health, and adherence to husbandry legislation via a case-study of a free adoption-drive for cats ≥1 year at a Western Australian shelter. Post-adoption outcomes were compared between free adopters and a control group of normal-fee adopters. The free adoption-drive rehomed 137 cats, increasing average weekly adoptions by 533%. First-time adopters were a significantly larger portion of the free cohort, as a result of mixed-media promotions. Both adopter groups selected cats of similar age; sex and pelage. Post-adoption, both groups retained >90% cats, reporting near identical incidences of medical and behavioural problems. Adopters did not differ in legislative compliance regarding fitting collars, registering cats, or allowing cats to roam. The shelter reported satisfaction with the adoption-drive, because in addition to relieving crowding of healthy adults, adoption of full-fee kittens increased 381%. Overall, we found no evidence for adverse outcomes associated with free adoptions. Shelters should not be dissuaded from occasional free adoption-drives during overflow periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Sheltering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Environmental Enrichment for Sucker and Weaner Pigs: The Effect of Enrichment Block Shape on the Behavioural Interaction by Pigs with the Blocks
Animals 2017, 7(12), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120091
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 25 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This experiment tested the effect of enrichment-block shape on oro-nasal contact by young pigs, and possible habituation to the blocks. Nineteen litters (197 piglets) were randomly allocated to one of three block-shape treatments: Cube, Brick, or Wedge. Oro-nasal contact with blocks was infrequent
[...] Read more.
This experiment tested the effect of enrichment-block shape on oro-nasal contact by young pigs, and possible habituation to the blocks. Nineteen litters (197 piglets) were randomly allocated to one of three block-shape treatments: Cube, Brick, or Wedge. Oro-nasal contact with blocks was infrequent before 25 days of age. Thereafter, contact steadily increased, suggesting enrichment blocks may not need to be provided until week 4 of lactation. Brick-shaped blocks attracted more oro-nasal contact than the cube and wedge shapes (p = 0.002). Oro-nasal contact was more frequent (p < 0.001) during the first 24 h after block introduction than when blocks were four days old. From 25 to 60 days of age, oro-nasal bouts were longer (p = 0.014) during the first 30 min of exposure to a fresh block, than for the remainder of the 24 h, or on day 4 after block replacement. Therefore, habituation to blocks may have occurred by 24 h after block introduction. Brick-shaped blocks may present a wider surface for oro-nasal contact, where multiple pigs could simultaneously interact with the block. We speculate that simultaneous interaction with brick-shaped blocks may be similar to a litter co-operatively massaging the sow’s udder prior to suckling bouts. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Weak Spots in Contemporary Science (and How to Fix Them)
Animals 2017, 7(12), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120090
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review, the author discusses several of the weak spots in contemporary science, including scientific misconduct, the problems of post hoc hypothesizing (HARKing), outcome switching, theoretical bloopers in formulating research questions and hypotheses, selective reading of the literature, selective citing of previous
[...] Read more.
In this review, the author discusses several of the weak spots in contemporary science, including scientific misconduct, the problems of post hoc hypothesizing (HARKing), outcome switching, theoretical bloopers in formulating research questions and hypotheses, selective reading of the literature, selective citing of previous results, improper blinding and other design failures, p-hacking or researchers’ tendency to analyze data in many different ways to find positive (typically significant) results, errors and biases in the reporting of results, and publication bias. The author presents some empirical results highlighting problems that lower the trustworthiness of reported results in scientific literatures, including that of animal welfare studies. Some of the underlying causes of these biases are discussed based on the notion that researchers are only human and hence are not immune to confirmation bias, hindsight bias, and minor ethical transgressions. The author discusses solutions in the form of enhanced transparency, sharing of data and materials, (post-publication) peer review, pre-registration, registered reports, improved training, reporting guidelines, replication, dealing with publication bias, alternative inferential techniques, power, and other statistical tools. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Brazilian Citizens: Expectations Regarding Dairy Cattle Welfare and Awareness of Contentious Practices
Animals 2017, 7(12), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120089
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to explore attitudes of urban Brazilian citizens about dairy production. A secondary aim was to determine their knowledge and attitudes about four potentially contentious routine dairy cattle management practices: early cow-calf separation; zero-grazing; culling of newborn
[...] Read more.
The primary aim of this study was to explore attitudes of urban Brazilian citizens about dairy production. A secondary aim was to determine their knowledge and attitudes about four potentially contentious routine dairy cattle management practices: early cow-calf separation; zero-grazing; culling of newborn male calves; and dehorning without pain mitigation. To address the first aim 40 participants were interviewed using open-ended semi-structured questions designed to probe their views and attitudes about dairy production in Brazil, and 300 participants answered a questionnaire that included an open-ended question about the welfare of dairy cattle. Primary concerns reported by the participants centered on milk quality, which included the rejection of any chemical additives, but also animal welfare, environmental and social issues. The interviewees rarely mentioned animal welfare directly but, when probed, expressed several concerns related to this topic. In particular, participants commented on factors that they perceived to influence milk quality, such as good animal health, feeding, clean facilities, and the need to avoid or reduce the use of drugs, hormones and pesticides, the avoidance of pain, frustration and suffering, and the ability of the animals to perform natural behaviors. To address our second aim, participants were asked questions about the four routine management practices. Although they self-reported being largely unaware of these practices, the majority of the participants rejected these practices outright. These data provide insight that animal welfare may be an important issue for members of the public. Failure to consider this information may increase the risk that certain dairy production practices may not be socially sustainable once lay citizens become aware of them. Full article
Open AccessReview To Group or Not to Group? Good Practice for Housing Male Laboratory Mice
Animals 2017, 7(12), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120088
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
It is widely recommended to group-house male laboratory mice because they are ‘social animals’, but male mice do not naturally share territories and aggression can be a serious welfare problem. Even without aggression, not all animals within a group will be in a
[...] Read more.
It is widely recommended to group-house male laboratory mice because they are ‘social animals’, but male mice do not naturally share territories and aggression can be a serious welfare problem. Even without aggression, not all animals within a group will be in a state of positive welfare. Rather, many male mice may be negatively affected by the stress of repeated social defeat and subordination, raising concerns about welfare and also research validity. However, individual housing may not be an appropriate solution, given the welfare implications associated with no social contact. An essential question is whether it is in the best welfare interests of male mice to be group- or singly housed. This review explores the likely impacts—positive and negative—of both housing conditions, presents results of a survey of current practice and awareness of mouse behavior, and includes recommendations for good practice and future research. We conclude that whether group- or single-housing is better (or less worse) in any situation is highly context-dependent according to several factors including strain, age, social position, life experiences, and housing and husbandry protocols. It is important to recognise this and evaluate what is preferable from animal welfare and ethical perspectives in each case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Management in the 21st Century)
Open AccessArticle The Mental Homologies of Mammals. Towards an Understanding of Another Mammals World View
Animals 2017, 7(12), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7120087
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mammals’ mental homologies include that they look after their young, suckle and protect them; they acquire information about the world by learning. They have five types of sensory receptors and a brain to analyze the information and they feel: that is they are
[...] Read more.
Mammals’ mental homologies include that they look after their young, suckle and protect them; they acquire information about the world by learning. They have five types of sensory receptors and a brain to analyze the information and they feel: that is they are sentient. Mental homologies have been largely ignored by behavioural scientists since Darwin because of certain historical beliefs. This however has not been the case for people who have had to do with non-human mammals who have long recognized their mental similarities to humans. As a result, behavioural science has sponsored some inappropriate research (examples are given). The study of another mammal species epistemology, (knowledge and world view) requires a recognition of these mental homologies. The result of a 25 year multi-disciplinary study indicates that there are nine mammalian mental homologies which define mammals. These are discussed and reviewed and further mental aptitudes which logically follow from these are pointed out. A Conditional Anthropomorphic approach is proposed. By recognizing the body/mind, whole “being” homologies of mammals, we can advance in understanding other mammal species’ and individual’s epistemology (world view), and consequently better their welfare and enrich our own lives. Full article
Back to Top