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Article

Serological and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Camels in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

1
Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
2
Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3, Canada
3
Department of Bacteriology, Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Cairo 131, Egypt
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Al Ahsa Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pathology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza 12618, Egypt
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Department of Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Hygiene and Preventive Medicine Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Søren Nielsen
Animals 2021, 11(2), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020323
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 25 January 2021 / Published: 28 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Clinical Studies)
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, affecting small and large ruminants and causing chronic diarrhea and severe emaciation. MAP is prevalent in many countries, including Saudi Arabia. Serological and molecular characterization of MAP and determination of the prevalent strains are essential for the control strategies. The results obtained from 31 herds showed that the sheep type (S-type) was the most prevalent MAP type and the molecular characterization revealed different strain profiles distributed among the sheep, goat, cattle, and camel herds in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.
The objectives of the present study were to characterize Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection using serological and molecular tools and investigate the distribution and molecular characterization of MAP strains (cattle (C) and sheep (S) types) in sheep, goat, cattle, and camel herds in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Serum and fecal samples were collected from all animals aged >2 years old in 31 herds (sheep = 8, goats = 6, cattle = 8 and camels = 9) from January to December 2019. Serum samples were tested by ELISA for the detection of MAP antibodies. Fecal samples were tested by PCR for the detection of MAP IS900 gene and the identification of MAP strains. MAP antibodies were detected in 19 (61.3%) herds. At the animal level, antibodies against MAP were detected in 43 (19.5%) sheep, 21 (17.1%) goats, 13 (19.7%) cattle and 22 (9.1%) camels. The IS900 gene of MAP was detected in 23 (74.2%) herds and was directly amplified from fecal samples of 59 (26.8%) sheep, 34 (27.6%) goats, 20 (30.3%) cattle and 36 (15.0%) camels. The S-type was the most prevalent MAP type identified in 15 herds, and all were identified as type-I, while the C-type was identified in only 8 herds. The IS900 sequences revealed genetic differences among the MAP isolates recovered from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. Results from the present study show that MAP was prevalent and confirm the distribution of different MAP strains in sheep, goat, cattle and camel herds in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. View Full-Text
Keywords: MAP; ELISA; PCR; IS900 gene; ruminants; Saudi Arabia MAP; ELISA; PCR; IS900 gene; ruminants; Saudi Arabia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elsohaby, I.; Fayez, M.; Alkafafy, M.; Refaat, M.; Al-Marri, T.; Alaql, F.A.; Al Amer, A.S.; Abdallah, A.; Elmoslemany, A. Serological and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Camels in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Animals 2021, 11, 323. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020323

AMA Style

Elsohaby I, Fayez M, Alkafafy M, Refaat M, Al-Marri T, Alaql FA, Al Amer AS, Abdallah A, Elmoslemany A. Serological and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Camels in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Animals. 2021; 11(2):323. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020323

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elsohaby, Ibrahim, Mahmoud Fayez, Mohamed Alkafafy, Mohamed Refaat, Theeb Al-Marri, Fanan A. Alaql, Abdulaziz S. Al Amer, Abdelmonem Abdallah, and Ahmed Elmoslemany. 2021. "Serological and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Camels in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia" Animals 11, no. 2: 323. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020323

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