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Article

Effects of Zinc and Menthol-Based Diets on Co-Selection of Antibiotic Resistance among E. coli and Enterococcus spp. in Beef Cattle

1
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
2
Department of Clinical Sciences, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
3
Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
4
Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
5
Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anna Aris and Elena Garcia-Fruitos
Animals 2021, 11(2), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020259
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Alternatives in Animal Production)
As antibiotic resistance increases globally, alternatives to antibiotics are increasingly being investigated as growth promoters, as well as preventive and therapeutic agents, particularly in agriculture. Equally important is the need for investigation into the effects of antibiotic alternatives on antibiotic resistance and particularly their risk for co-selection. In this study, we explored the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in cattle fed zinc, menthol or a combination of the two. We found that zinc supplementation was associated with higher levels of macrolide resistance observed among enterococcal isolates.
Antibiotic resistance represents a growing crisis in both human and veterinary medicine. We evaluated the use of antibiotic alternatives—heavy metals and essential oils—in beef cattle feeding, and their effects on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In this randomized controlled field trial, we measured the impact of supplemental zinc and menthol on antibiotic resistance among commensal enteric bacteria of feeder cattle. Fecal suspensions were plated onto plain- and antibiotic-supplemented MacConkey and m-Enterococcus agar for quantification of total and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., respectively. Temporal effects on overall E. coli growth were significant (p < 0.05), and menthol was associated with decreased growth on tetracycline-supplemented agar. Zinc was associated with significant increases in growth on erythromycin-supplemented m-Enterococcus agar. Cattle fed zinc exhibited significantly higher levels of macrolide resistance among fecal enterococci isolates. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; antibiotic alternatives; heavy metals; essential oils antibiotic resistance; antibiotic alternatives; heavy metals; essential oils
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MDPI and ACS Style

Murray, S.A.; Amachawadi, R.G.; Norman, K.N.; Lawhon, S.D.; Nagaraja, T.G.; Drouillard, J.S.; Scott, H.M. Effects of Zinc and Menthol-Based Diets on Co-Selection of Antibiotic Resistance among E. coli and Enterococcus spp. in Beef Cattle. Animals 2021, 11, 259. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020259

AMA Style

Murray SA, Amachawadi RG, Norman KN, Lawhon SD, Nagaraja TG, Drouillard JS, Scott HM. Effects of Zinc and Menthol-Based Diets on Co-Selection of Antibiotic Resistance among E. coli and Enterococcus spp. in Beef Cattle. Animals. 2021; 11(2):259. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020259

Chicago/Turabian Style

Murray, Sarah A., Raghavendra G. Amachawadi, Keri N. Norman, Sara D. Lawhon, Tiruvoor G. Nagaraja, James S. Drouillard, and Harvey M. Scott. 2021. "Effects of Zinc and Menthol-Based Diets on Co-Selection of Antibiotic Resistance among E. coli and Enterococcus spp. in Beef Cattle" Animals 11, no. 2: 259. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020259

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