Next Article in Journal
Control and Surveillance Operations to Prevent Chronic Wasting Disease Establishment in Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer in Québec, Canada
Next Article in Special Issue
Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Klebsiella spp. Isolated from Diseased Horses in Austria
Previous Article in Journal
Antibacterial and Hemolytic Activity of Crotalus Triseriatus and Crotalus Ravus Venom
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Occurrence and Characterization of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Clinical Diagnostic Specimens of Equine Origin
Open AccessArticle

Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Shedding in Farm Horses Versus Hospitalized Horses: Prevalence and Risk Factors

1
Koret School of Veterinary Medicine (KSVM), The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 7610001, Israel
2
Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel
3
The Miriam and Sheldon Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel
4
Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
5
Clinical Microbiology Lab, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba 4428164, Israel
6
Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 9112102, Israel
7
Institute of Microbiology and Epizootics, Department of Veterinary Medicine at the Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 14163, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors had equal contribution.
Animals 2020, 10(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020282
Received: 15 January 2020 / Revised: 6 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 11 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Horses)
: We aimed to investigate the prevalence, molecular characteristics and risk factors of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) shedding in horses. A prospective study included three cohorts: (i) farm horses (13 farms, n = 192); (ii) on hospital admission (n = 168) and; (iii) horses hospitalized for ≥72 h re-sampled from cohort (ii) (n = 86). Enriched rectal swabs were plated, ESBL-production was confirmed (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)) and genes were identified (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)). Identification and antibiotic susceptibility were determined (Vitek-2). Medical records and owners’ questionnaires were analyzed. Shedding rates increased from 19.6% (n = 33/168) on admission to 77.9% (n = 67/86) during hospitalization (p < 0.0001, odds ratio (OR) = 12.12). Shedding rate in farms was 20.8% (n = 40/192), significantly lower compared to hospitalized horses (p < 0.0001). The main ESBL-E species (n = 192 isolates) were E. coli (59.9%, 115/192), Enterobacter sp. (17.7%, 34/192) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.0%, 25/192). The main gene group was CTX-M-1 (56.8%). A significant increase in resistance rates to chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulpha was identified during hospitalization. Risk factors for shedding in farms included breed (Arabian, OR = 3.9), sex (stallion, OR = 3.4), and antibiotic treatment (OR = 9.8). Older age was identified as a protective factor (OR = 0.88). We demonstrated an ESBL-E reservoir in equine cohorts, with a significant ESBL-E acquisition, which increases the necessity to implement active surveillance and antibiotic stewardship programs.
Keywords: equine; ESBL-E; antibiotic resistance; shedding; risk factors; farm; ESBL-E acquisition equine; ESBL-E; antibiotic resistance; shedding; risk factors; farm; ESBL-E acquisition
MDPI and ACS Style

Shnaiderman-Torban, A.; Navon-Venezia, S.; Dor, Z.; Paitan, Y.; Arielly, H.; Ahmad, W.A.; Kelmer, G.; Fulde, M.; Steinman, A. Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Shedding in Farm Horses Versus Hospitalized Horses: Prevalence and Risk Factors. Animals 2020, 10, 282.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop