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Open AccessArticle

Genetic but No Phenotypic Associations between Biocide Tolerance and Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from German Broiler Fattening Farms

1
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Max-Dohrn-Str. 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany
2
Institute for Animal Hygiene and Environmental Health, Freie Universität Berlin, Robert-von-Ostertag Str. 7-13, 14163 Berlin, Germany
3
Institute for Bioanalysis, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Friedrich-Streib-Str. 2, 96450 Coburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon Swift
Microorganisms 2021, 9(3), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030651
Received: 28 February 2021 / Revised: 18 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 21 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Tracing of Foodborne Pathogens)
Biocides are frequently applied as disinfectants in animal husbandry to prevent the transmission of drug-resistant bacteria and to control zoonotic diseases. Concerns have been raised, that their use may contribute to the selection and persistence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Especially, extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli have become a global health threat. In our study, 29 ESBL-/AmpC-producing and 64 NON-ESBL-/AmpC-producing E.coli isolates from three German broiler fattening farms collected in 2016 following regular cleaning and disinfection were phylogenetically characterized by whole genome sequencing, analyzed for phylogenetic distribution of virulence-associated genes, and screened for determinants of and associations between biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance. Of the 30 known and two unknown sequence types detected, ST117 and ST297 were the most common genotypes. These STs are recognized worldwide as pandemic lineages causing disease in humans and poultry. Virulence determinants associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E.coli showed variable phylogenetic distribution patterns. Isolates with reduced biocide susceptibility were rarely found on the tested farms. Nine isolates displayed elevated MICs and/or MBCs of formaldehyde, chlorocresol, peroxyacetic acid, or benzalkonium chloride. Antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole was most prevalent. The majority of ESBL-/AmpC-producing isolates carried blaCTX-M (55%) or blaCMY-2 (24%) genes. Phenotypic biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance were not interlinked. However, biocide and metal resistance determinants were found on mobile genetic elements together with antibiotic resistance genes raising concerns that biocides used in the food industry may lead to selection pressure for strains carrying acquired resistance determinants to different antimicrobials. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; biocide tolerance; antibiotic resistance; biocide determinants; virulence; food safety Escherichia coli; biocide tolerance; antibiotic resistance; biocide determinants; virulence; food safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roedel, A.; Vincze, S.; Projahn, M.; Roesler, U.; Robé, C.; Hammerl, J.A.; Noll, M.; Al Dahouk, S.; Dieckmann, R. Genetic but No Phenotypic Associations between Biocide Tolerance and Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from German Broiler Fattening Farms. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 651. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030651

AMA Style

Roedel A, Vincze S, Projahn M, Roesler U, Robé C, Hammerl JA, Noll M, Al Dahouk S, Dieckmann R. Genetic but No Phenotypic Associations between Biocide Tolerance and Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from German Broiler Fattening Farms. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(3):651. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030651

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roedel, Alice; Vincze, Szilvia; Projahn, Michaela; Roesler, Uwe; Robé, Caroline; Hammerl, Jens A.; Noll, Matthias; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Dieckmann, Ralf. 2021. "Genetic but No Phenotypic Associations between Biocide Tolerance and Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from German Broiler Fattening Farms" Microorganisms 9, no. 3: 651. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030651

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