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Open AccessArticle

Relationships among Fecal, Air, Oral, and Tracheal Microbial Communities in Pigs in a Respiratory Infection Disease Model

1
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
2
Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
3
Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Duluth, GA 30096, USA
4
Pipestone Applied Research, Pipestone, MN 56164, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nuria Canibe and Andrew Van Kessel
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020252
Received: 13 October 2020 / Revised: 13 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbial Ecology in Pigs—Impact on the Gut and Beyond)
The association of the lower respiratory tract microbiome in pigs with that of other tissues and environment is still unclear. This study aimed to describe the microbiome of tracheal and oral fluids, air, and feces in the late stage of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs, and assess the association between the tracheal microbiome and those from air, feces, and oral fluids. Tracheal fluids (n = 73), feces (n = 71), oropharyngeal fluids (n = 8), and air (n = 12) were collected in seeder pigs (inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae) and contact pigs (113 days post exposure to seeder pigs). After DNA extraction, the V4 region from 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and reads were processed using Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm (DADA2). Clostridium and Streptococcus were among the top five genera identified in all sample types. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in tracheal fluids was associated with a reduction of diversity and increment of M. hyorhinis, Glaesserella parasuis, and Pasteurella multocida in tracheal fluids, as well as a reduction of Ruminiclostridium, Barnesiella, and Lactobacillus in feces. Air contributed in a greater proportion to bacteria in the trachea compared with feces and oral fluids. In conclusion, evidence suggests the existence of complex interactions between bacterial communities from distant and distinct niches. View Full-Text
Keywords: swine; Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; fecal; tracheal; environment; microbiome swine; Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; fecal; tracheal; environment; microbiome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Valeris-Chacin, R.; Sponheim, A.; Fano, E.; Isaacson, R.; Singer, R.S.; Nerem, J.; Leite, F.L.; Pieters, M. Relationships among Fecal, Air, Oral, and Tracheal Microbial Communities in Pigs in a Respiratory Infection Disease Model. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 252. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020252

AMA Style

Valeris-Chacin R, Sponheim A, Fano E, Isaacson R, Singer RS, Nerem J, Leite FL, Pieters M. Relationships among Fecal, Air, Oral, and Tracheal Microbial Communities in Pigs in a Respiratory Infection Disease Model. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(2):252. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020252

Chicago/Turabian Style

Valeris-Chacin, Robert; Sponheim, Amanda; Fano, Eduardo; Isaacson, Richard; Singer, Randall S.; Nerem, Joel; Leite, Fernando L.; Pieters, Maria. 2021. "Relationships among Fecal, Air, Oral, and Tracheal Microbial Communities in Pigs in a Respiratory Infection Disease Model" Microorganisms 9, no. 2: 252. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020252

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