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Review

Organoids and Bioengineered Intestinal Models: Potential Solutions to the Cryptosporidium Culturing Dilemma

1
Vector and Waterborne Pathogens Research Group, College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150, Western Australia, Australia
2
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150, Western Australia, Australia
3
South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia
4
College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide 5042, South Australia, Australia
5
Future Industries Institute and ARC Centre of Excellence for Convergent Bio and Nano Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5095, South Australia, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050715
Received: 20 April 2020 / Revised: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
Cryptosporidium is a major cause of severe diarrhea-related disease in children in developing countries, but currently no vaccine or effective treatment exists for those who are most at risk of serious illness. This is partly due to the lack of in vitro culturing methods that are able to support the entire Cryptosporidium life cycle, which has led to research in Cryptosporidium biology lagging behind other protozoan parasites. In vivo models such as gnotobiotic piglets are complex, and standard in vitro culturing methods in transformed cell lines, such as HCT-8 cells, have not been able to fully support fertilization occurring in vitro. Additionally, the Cryptosporidium life cycle has also been reported to occur in the absence of host cells. Recently developed bioengineered intestinal models, however, have shown more promising results and are able to reproduce a whole cycle of infectivity in one model system. This review evaluates the recent advances in Cryptosporidium culturing techniques and proposes future directions for research that may build upon these successes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cryptosporidium; three-dimensional intestinal model; in vitro; organ-on-a-chip; organoid Cryptosporidium; three-dimensional intestinal model; in vitro; organ-on-a-chip; organoid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gunasekera, S.; Zahedi, A.; O’Dea, M.; King, B.; Monis, P.; Thierry, B.; M. Carr, J.; Ryan, U. Organoids and Bioengineered Intestinal Models: Potential Solutions to the Cryptosporidium Culturing Dilemma. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 715. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050715

AMA Style

Gunasekera S, Zahedi A, O’Dea M, King B, Monis P, Thierry B, M. Carr J, Ryan U. Organoids and Bioengineered Intestinal Models: Potential Solutions to the Cryptosporidium Culturing Dilemma. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(5):715. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050715

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gunasekera, Samantha, Alireza Zahedi, Mark O’Dea, Brendon King, Paul Monis, Benjamin Thierry, Jillian M. Carr, and Una Ryan. 2020. "Organoids and Bioengineered Intestinal Models: Potential Solutions to the Cryptosporidium Culturing Dilemma" Microorganisms 8, no. 5: 715. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050715

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