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Retrospective Analysis on Antimicrobial Resistance Trends and Prevalence of β-lactamases in Escherichia coli and ESKAPE Pathogens Isolated from Arabian Patients during 2000–2020

1
Department of Biotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Sub-Campus, Osmanabad 413 528, MS, India
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National Center for Public Health Laboratories, Hodeidah, Yemen
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Department of Environmental Science, S. B. College of Science, Aurangabad 431001, India
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Department of Microbiology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, India
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Laboratory of Microbiology Signals and Microenvironments, LMSM EA 4312, University of Rouen, Normandy, F-27000 Evreux, France
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Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110067, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(10), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101626
Received: 24 September 2020 / Revised: 18 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 21 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance)
The production of diverse and extended spectrum β-lactamases among Escherichia coli and ESKAPE pathogens is a growing threat to clinicians and public health. We aim to provide a comprehensive analysis of evolving trends of antimicrobial resistance and β-lactamases among E. coli and ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acine to bacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) in the Arabian region. A systematic review was conducted in Medline PubMed on papers published between January 2000 and February 2020 on countries in the Arab region showing different antibiotic resistance among E. coli and ESKAPE pathogens. A total of n = 119,144 clinical isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial resistance in 19 Arab countries. Among these clinical isolates, 74,039 belonged to E. coli and ESKAPE pathogen. Distribution of antibiotic resistance among E. coli and ESKAPE pathogens indicated that E. coli (n = 32,038) was the predominant pathogen followed by K. pneumoniae (n = 17,128), P. aeruginosa (n = 11,074), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, n = 4370), A. baumannii (n = 3485) and Enterobacter spp. (n = 1574). There were no reports demonstrating Enterococcus faecium producing β-lactamase. Analyses revealed 19 out of 22 countries reported occurrence of ESBL (Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase) producing E. coli and ESKAPE pathogens. The present study showed significantly increased resistance rates to various antimicrobial agents over the last 20 years; for instance, cephalosporin resistance increased from 37 to 89.5%, fluoroquinolones from 46.8 to 70.3%, aminoglycosides from 40.2 to 64.4%, mono-bactams from 30.6 to 73.6% and carbapenems from 30.5 to 64.4%. An average of 36.9% of the total isolates were reported to have ESBL phenotype during 2000 to 2020. Molecular analyses showed that among ESBLs and Class A and Class D β-lactamases, blaCTX-M and blaOXA have higher prevalence rates of 57% and 52.7%, respectively. Among Class B β-lactamases, few incidences of blaVIM 27.7% and blaNDM 26.3% were encountered in the Arab region. Conclusion: This review highlights a significant increase in resistance to various classes of antibiotics, including cephalosporins, β-lactam and β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, carbapenems, aminoglycosides and quinolones among E. coli and ESKAPE pathogens in the Arab region. View Full-Text
Keywords: ESBL; E. coli; ESKAPE pathogens; antibiotic resistance; β-lactamase; Arab region ESBL; E. coli; ESKAPE pathogens; antibiotic resistance; β-lactamase; Arab region
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nasser, M.; Palwe, S.; Bhargava, R.N.; Feuilloley, M.G.J.; Kharat, A.S. Retrospective Analysis on Antimicrobial Resistance Trends and Prevalence of β-lactamases in Escherichia coli and ESKAPE Pathogens Isolated from Arabian Patients during 2000–2020. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1626. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101626

AMA Style

Nasser M, Palwe S, Bhargava RN, Feuilloley MGJ, Kharat AS. Retrospective Analysis on Antimicrobial Resistance Trends and Prevalence of β-lactamases in Escherichia coli and ESKAPE Pathogens Isolated from Arabian Patients during 2000–2020. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(10):1626. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101626

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nasser, Mahfouz; Palwe, Snehal; Bhargava, Ram N.; Feuilloley, Marc G.J.; Kharat, Arun S. 2020. "Retrospective Analysis on Antimicrobial Resistance Trends and Prevalence of β-lactamases in Escherichia coli and ESKAPE Pathogens Isolated from Arabian Patients during 2000–2020" Microorganisms 8, no. 10: 1626. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101626

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