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Microorganisms 2019, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7010005

Structure and Synthesis of Antifungal Disulfide β-Strand Proteins from Filamentous Fungi

1
Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary
2
MTA-SZTE Biomimetic Systems Research Group, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary
3
Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Proteins in Filamentous Fungi)
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Abstract

The discovery and understanding of the mode of action of new antimicrobial agents is extremely urgent, since fungal infections cause 1.5 million deaths annually. Antifungal peptides and proteins represent a significant group of compounds that are able to kill pathogenic fungi. Based on phylogenetic analyses the ascomycetous, cysteine-rich antifungal proteins can be divided into three different groups: Penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein (PAF), Neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein 2 (NFAP2) and “bubble-proteins” (BP) produced, for example, by P. brevicompactum. They all dominantly have β-strand secondary structures that are stabilized by several disulfide bonds. The PAF group (AFP antifungal protein from Aspergillus giganteus, PAF and PAFB from P. chrysogenum, Neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein (NFAP)) is the best characterized with their common β-barrel tertiary structure. These proteins and variants can efficiently be obtained either from fungi production or by recombinant expression. However, chemical synthesis may be a complementary aid for preparing unusual modifications, e.g., the incorporation of non-coded amino acids, fluorophores, or even unnatural disulfide bonds. Synthetic variants up to ca. 6–7 kDa can also be put to good use for corroborating structure determination. A short overview of the structural peculiarities of antifungal β-strand disulfide bridged proteins will be given. Here, we describe the structural propensities of some known antifungal proteins from filamentous fungi which can also be prepared with modern synthetic chemistry methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: structure; antifungal protein; chemical synthesis; solid-phase peptide synthesis; native chemical ligation; disulfide bond; NFAP2; PAF structure; antifungal protein; chemical synthesis; solid-phase peptide synthesis; native chemical ligation; disulfide bond; NFAP2; PAF
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Váradi, G.; Tóth, G.K.; Batta, G. Structure and Synthesis of Antifungal Disulfide β-Strand Proteins from Filamentous Fungi. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 5.

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