Next Article in Journal
Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection
Previous Article in Journal
New Dimensions in Microbial Ecology—Functional Genes in Studies to Unravel the Biodiversity and Role of Functional Microbial Groups in the Environment
Previous Article in Special Issue
Extensive Intestinal Resection Triggers Behavioral Adaptation, Intestinal Remodeling and Microbiota Transition in Short Bowel Syndrome
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Microbiome, Metabolome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, 4028 Wahl Hall East, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carl Gordon Johnston
Microorganisms 2016, 4(2), 20;
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Gut Microbiota Metabolic Interactions)
PDF [493 KB, uploaded 15 June 2016]


Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder that conceptually occurs as a result of altered immune responses to commensal and/or pathogenic gut microbes in individuals most susceptible to the disease. During Crohn’s Disease (CD) or Ulcerative Colitis (UC), two components of the human IBD, distinct stages define the disease onset, severity, progression and remission. Epigenetic, environmental (microbiome, metabolome) and nutritional factors are important in IBD pathogenesis. While the dysbiotic microbiota has been proposed to play a role in disease pathogenesis, the data on IBD and diet are still less convincing. Nonetheless, studies are ongoing to examine the effect of pre/probiotics and/or FODMAP reduced diets on both the gut microbiome and its metabolome in an effort to define the healthy diet in patients with IBD. Knowledge of a unique metabolomic fingerprint in IBD could be useful for diagnosis, treatment and detection of disease pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; metabolome; metabolites; dysbiosis; inflammation bowel diseases; prebiotics; probiotics microbiome; metabolome; metabolites; dysbiosis; inflammation bowel diseases; prebiotics; probiotics

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, I.; Roy, B.C.; Khan, S.A.; Septer, S.; Umar, S. Microbiome, Metabolome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 20.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Microorganisms EISSN 2076-2607 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top