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Autochthonous Human and Canine Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Europe: Report of a Human Case in An Italian Teen and Systematic Review of the Literature

1
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy
2
IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, 37024 Verona, Italy
3
Department of Emergency and Organs Transplantation, Veterinary Section, Campus of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy
4
Microbiology and Virology Unit, Careggi University Hospital, 50134 Florence, Italy
5
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
6
Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Careggi University and Hospital, 50134 Florence, Italy
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Referral Center for Tropical Diseases of Tuscany, Careggi University Hospital, 50134 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060439
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 3 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevalence of Strongyloidiasis and Schistosomiasis)
Autochthonous human and canine strongyloidiasis is reported in Europe but is unclear whether the transmission of infection still occurs. We report a previously unpublished human case in an Italian teen and perform a systematic review of literature on autochthonous human and canine strongyloidiasis in Europe to investigate the current dynamic of transmission. Overall, 109 papers published after 1987 were included and one previously unpublished Italian case was added. Eighty case reports were retrieved and 42 of them (52.5%) had severe strongyloidiasis. Most cases were diagnosed in Spain, Italy and France. The median age was 58, the most represented age group was 61–70 years, 11 patients were under 30, and 7 of them were diagnosed after 2000. Epidemiological studies on human strongyloidiasis showed prevalence ranging from 0.56% to 28%. Overall, agriculture work, mine work and walking barefoot were the most commonly reported risk factors for infection. Canine strongyloidiasis was reported mainly in Italy (68 cases), but a few cases occurred also in Iceland, Finland, England, Germany, France, Switzerland, Russia, Slovakia, Romania and Greece. Autochthonous strongyloidiasis is still reported in Europe and sporadic transmission still occurs. Health care professionals should be aware of this issue to identify infected subjects and avoid adverse outcomes, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Further investigations are needed to clarify the zoonotic transmission of this nematode. View Full-Text
Keywords: strongyloidiasis; neglected tropical diseases; one health; transplant strongyloidiasis; neglected tropical diseases; one health; transplant
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Ottino, L.; Buonfrate, D.; Paradies, P.; Bisoffi, Z.; Antonelli, A.; Rossolini, G.M.; Gabrielli, S.; Bartoloni, A.; Zammarchi, L. Autochthonous Human and Canine Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Europe: Report of a Human Case in An Italian Teen and Systematic Review of the Literature. Pathogens 2020, 9, 439.

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