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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds Obtained from Breath and Feces to Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Doñana National Park, Spain

1
Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA
2
Department of Electronics, Electrical and Automatic Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
3
The Ångström Laboratory, Division of Solid State Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala, Sweden
4
VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre, Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
5
SaBio Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC, ETSIA Ciudad Real, University Castilla La Mancha & CSIC, 13003 Ciudad Real, Spain
6
Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Autónoma del Caribe, Barranquilla 080020, Colombia
7
Department of Chemical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
8
Biomedical Institute of Sevilla (IBiS), University of Seville, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío/CSIC, 41071 Seville, Spain
9
National Veterinary Services Laboratory, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, Fort Collins, CO 80521 USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Retired.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050346
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 26 April 2020 / Published: 2 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Control in Multi-Host Systems)
The presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in wild swine, such as in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Eurasia, is cause for serious concern. Development of accurate, efficient, and noninvasive methods to detect MTBC in wild swine would be highly beneficial to surveillance and disease management efforts in affected populations. Here, we describe the first report of identification of volatile organic compounds (VOC) obtained from the breath and feces of wild boar to distinguish between MTBC-positive and MTBC-negative boar. We analyzed breath and fecal VOC collected from 15 MTBC-positive and 18 MTBC-negative wild boar in Donaña National Park in Southeast Spain. Analyses were divided into three age classes, namely, adults (>2 years), sub-adults (12–24 months), and juveniles (<12 months). We identified significant compounds by applying the two-tailed statistical t-test for two samples assuming unequal variance, with an α value of 0.05. One statistically significant VOC was identified in breath samples from adult wild boar and 14 were identified in breath samples from juvenile wild boar. One statistically significant VOC was identified in fecal samples collected from sub-adult wild boar and three were identified in fecal samples from juvenile wild boar. In addition, discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to build classification models for MTBC prediction in juvenile animals. Using DFA, we were able to distinguish between MTBC-positive juvenile wild boar and MTBC-negative juvenile wild boar using breath VOC or fecal VOC. Based on our results, further research is warranted and should be performed using larger sample sizes, as well as wild boar from various geographic locations, to verify these compounds as biomarkers for MTBC infection in this species. This new approach to detect MTBC infection in free-ranging wild boar potentially comprises a reliable and efficient screening tool for surveillance in animal populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: volatile organic compounds; VOC; Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; wild boar; swine; Sus scrofa volatile organic compounds; VOC; Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; wild boar; swine; Sus scrofa
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Nol, P.; Ionescu, R.; Geremariam Welearegay, T.; Barasona, J.A.; Vicente, J.; de Jesus Beleño-Sáenz, K.; Barrenetxea, I.; Jose Torres, M.; Ionescu, F.; Rhyan, J. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds Obtained from Breath and Feces to Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Doñana National Park, Spain. Pathogens 2020, 9, 346.

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