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Open AccessArticle

Dynamic Network of Interactions in the Wildlife-Livestock Interface in Mediterranean Spain: An Epidemiological Point of View

1
Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC) UCLM-CSIC-JCCM, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
2
Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UCLM, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
4
VISAVET, Animal Health Department, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020120
Received: 20 January 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Control in Multi-Host Systems)
The correct management of diseases that are transmitted between wildlife and livestock requires a reliable estimate of the pathogen transmission rate. The calculation of this parameter is a challenge for epidemiologists, since transmission can occur through multiple pathways. The social network analysis is a widely used tool in epidemiology due to its capacity to identify individuals and communities with relevant roles for pathogen transmission. In the present work, we studied the dynamic network of interactions in a complex epidemiological scenario using information from different methodologies. In 2015, nine red deer, seven fallow deer, six wild boar and nine cattle were simultaneously monitored using GPS-GSM-Proximity collars in Doñana National Park. In addition, 16 proximity loggers were set in aggregation points. Using the social network analysis, we studied the dynamic network of interactions, including direct and indirect interactions, between individuals of different species and the potential transmission of pathogens within this network. The results show a high connection between species through indirect interactions, with a marked seasonality in the conformation of new interactions. Within the network, we differentiated four communities that included individuals of all the species. Regarding the transmission of pathogens, we observed the important role that fallow deer could be playing in the maintenance and transmission of pathogens to livestock. The present work shows the need to consider different types of methodologies in order to understand the complete functioning of the network of interactions at the wildlife/livestock interface. It also provides a methodological approach applicable to the management of shared diseases.
Keywords: social network analysis; GPS; proximity loggers; wild ungulates; cattle; tuberculosis; interactions; epidemiology; multi-host system social network analysis; GPS; proximity loggers; wild ungulates; cattle; tuberculosis; interactions; epidemiology; multi-host system
MDPI and ACS Style

Triguero-Ocaña, R.; Martínez-López, B.; Vicente, J.; Barasona, J.A.; Martínez-Guijosa, J.; Acevedo, P. Dynamic Network of Interactions in the Wildlife-Livestock Interface in Mediterranean Spain: An Epidemiological Point of View. Pathogens 2020, 9, 120.

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