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Article

Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Salmonella spp. Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK
2
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Pengkalan Chepa, Kota Bharu 16100, Malaysia
3
Centre for Clinical Microbiology, Department of Infection, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London NW3 2PF, UK
4
Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150, Malaysia
5
National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, University College London Hospitals, London NW1 2BU, UK
6
Institute of Population Health Sciences, Barts and London Medical and Dental School, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marialaura Corrente
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091160
Received: 21 July 2021 / Revised: 15 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 September 2021 / Published: 9 September 2021
The burden of antimicrobial use in agricultural settings is one of the greatest challenges facing global health and food security in the modern era. Malaysian poultry operations are a relevant but understudied component of epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to identify the prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors associated with Salmonella isolates from poultry farms in three states of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia. Between 8 February 2019 and 23 February 2020, a total of 371 samples (cloacal swabs = 259; faecal = 84; Sewage = 14, Tap water = 14) was collected from poultry operations. Characteristics of the sampled farms and associated risk factors were obtained using semi-structured questionnaires. Presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were identified based on colony morphology with subsequent biochemical and PCR confirmation. Susceptibility of isolates was tested against a panel of 12 antimicrobials using disk diffusion method. Our findings revealed that the proportion of Salmonella spp.-positive isolates across sample source were as following: cloacal swab (46.3%, 120/259); faecal (59.5%, 50/84); in tap water (14.3%, 2/14); and in sewage sample (35.7%, 5/14). Isolates from faecal (15.5%, 13/84), cloacal (1.2%, 3/259), and sewage (7.1%, 1/14) samples were significantly resistant to at least five classes of antimicrobials. Resistance to Sulfonamides class (52%, 92/177) was predominantly observed followed by tetracycline (39.5%, 70/177) and aminoglycosides (35.6%, 63/177). Multivariate regression analysis identified intensive management system (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.00–2.40) as a leading driver of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) acquisition. A prevalence of resistance to common antimicrobials was recorded for sulfamethoxazole (33.9%), tetracycline (39.5%), and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (37.9%). A close association between different risk factors and the prevalence of AMR of Salmonella strains suggests a concern over rising misuse of veterinary antimicrobials that may contribute to the emergence and evolution of multidrug-resistant pathogen isolates. One Health approach is recommended to achieve a positive health outcome for all species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella spp.; antimicrobial resistant; distribution; poultry farms; environment; Malaysia Salmonella spp.; antimicrobial resistant; distribution; poultry farms; environment; Malaysia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Osman, A.Y.; Elmi, S.A.; Simons, D.; Elton, L.; Haider, N.; Khan, M.A.; Othman, I.; Zumla, A.; McCoy, D.; Kock, R. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Salmonella spp. Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1160. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091160

AMA Style

Osman AY, Elmi SA, Simons D, Elton L, Haider N, Khan MA, Othman I, Zumla A, McCoy D, Kock R. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Salmonella spp. Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Pathogens. 2021; 10(9):1160. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091160

Chicago/Turabian Style

Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf, Sharifo Ali Elmi, David Simons, Linzy Elton, Najmul Haider, Mohd Azam Khan, Iekhsan Othman, Alimuddin Zumla, David McCoy, and Richard Kock. 2021. "Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Salmonella spp. Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study" Pathogens 10, no. 9: 1160. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091160

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