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Review of Vesicular Stomatitis in the United States with Focus on 2019 and 2020 Outbreaks

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Veterinary Services, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA
USDA-APHIS-Veterinary Services, Topeka, KS 66615, USA
USDA-Agriculture Research Service (ARS), Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory, Pest Management Research, Sidney, MT 59270, USA
USDA-ARS, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Long Island, NY 11957, USA
Department of Agriculture, Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS 67601, USA
USDA-ARS, Center for Grain and Animal Health Research, Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
USDA-APHIS-Veterinary Services, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, IA 50010, USA
USDA-ARS, Jornada Experimental Range Unit, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
USDA-ARS SCINet Big Data Program, Berwyn Heights, MD 20740, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anne Sally Davis and Barbara S Drolet
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 993;
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 2 August 2021 / Accepted: 4 August 2021 / Published: 6 August 2021
Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a vector-borne livestock disease caused by vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) or vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV). The disease circulates endemically in northern South America, Central America, and Mexico and only occasionally causes outbreaks in the United States. Over the past 20 years, VSNJV outbreaks in the southwestern and Rocky Mountain regions occurred with incursion years followed by virus overwintering and subsequent expansion outbreak years. Regulatory response by animal health officials is deployed to prevent spread from lesioned animals. The 2019 VS incursion was the largest in 40 years, lasting from June to December 2019 with 1144 VS-affected premises in 111 counties in eight states (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming) and was VSIV serotype, last isolated in 1998. A subsequent expansion occurred from April to October 2020 with 326 VS-affected premises in 70 counties in eight states (Arizona, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas). The primary serotype in 2020 was VSIV, but a separate incursion of VSNJV occurred in south Texas. Summary characteristics of the outbreaks are presented along with VSV-vector sampling results and phylogenetic analysis of VSIV isolates providing evidence of virus overwintering. View Full-Text
Keywords: vesicular stomatitis; livestock disease; vector-borne disease outbreak; equine vesicular stomatitis; livestock disease; vector-borne disease outbreak; equine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pelzel-McCluskey, A.; Christensen, B.; Humphreys, J.; Bertram, M.; Keener, R.; Ewing, R.; Cohnstaedt, L.W.; Tell, R.; Peters, D.P.C.; Rodriguez, L. Review of Vesicular Stomatitis in the United States with Focus on 2019 and 2020 Outbreaks. Pathogens 2021, 10, 993.

AMA Style

Pelzel-McCluskey A, Christensen B, Humphreys J, Bertram M, Keener R, Ewing R, Cohnstaedt LW, Tell R, Peters DPC, Rodriguez L. Review of Vesicular Stomatitis in the United States with Focus on 2019 and 2020 Outbreaks. Pathogens. 2021; 10(8):993.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pelzel-McCluskey, Angela, Brad Christensen, John Humphreys, Miranda Bertram, Robert Keener, Robert Ewing, Lee W. Cohnstaedt, Rachel Tell, Debra P.C. Peters, and Luis Rodriguez. 2021. "Review of Vesicular Stomatitis in the United States with Focus on 2019 and 2020 Outbreaks" Pathogens 10, no. 8: 993.

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