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Article

Longitudinal Development of Antibody Responses in COVID-19 Patients of Different Severity with ELISA, Peptide, and Glycan Arrays: An Immunological Case Series

1
Department of Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
2
Division of Infectious Diseases, First Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
3
Department of Clinical Immunology of Infectious Diseases, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
4
German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Hamburg-Lübeck-Borstel-Riems, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
5
Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
6
I. Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
7
Glycotechnology Laboratory, Center for Cooperative Research in Biomaterials (CIC biomaGUNE), Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Paseo de Miramon 182, 20014 Donostia San Sebastián, Spain
8
CIBER-BBN, Paseo Miramón 182, 20014 San Sebastián, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Members of the ID-UKE COVID-19 Study Group are listed at the end of the manuscript.
Academic Editors: Philipp A. Ilinykh and Kai Huang
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040438
Received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 31 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Antibody Responses to Virus Infections in Humans)
The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). A better understanding of its immunogenicity can be important for the development of improved diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Here, we report the longitudinal analysis of three COVID-19 patients with moderate (#1) and mild disease (#2 and #3). Antibody serum responses were analyzed using spike glycoprotein enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), full-proteome peptide, and glycan microarrays. ELISA immunoglobulin A, G, and M (IgA, IgG, and IgM) signals increased over time for individuals #1 and #2, whereas #3 only showed no clear positive IgG and IgM result. In contrast, peptide microarrays showed increasing IgA/G signal intensity and epitope spread only in the moderate patient #1 over time, whereas early but transient IgA and stable IgG responses were observed in the two mild cases #2 and #3. Glycan arrays showed an interaction of antibodies to fragments of high-mannose and core N-glycans, present on the viral shield. In contrast to protein ELISA, microarrays allow for a deeper understanding of IgA, IgG, and IgM antibody responses to specific epitopes of the whole proteome and glycans of SARS-CoV-2 in parallel. In the future, this may help to better understand and to monitor vaccination programs and monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; full proteome; peptide microarrays; glycan microarrays SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; full proteome; peptide microarrays; glycan microarrays
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MDPI and ACS Style

Heidepriem, J.; Dahlke, C.; Kobbe, R.; Santer, R.; Koch, T.; Fathi, A.; Seco, B.M.S.; Ly, M.L.; Schmiedel, S.; Schwinge, D.; Serna, S.; Sellrie, K.; Reichardt, N.-C.; Seeberger, P.H.; Addo, M.M.; Loeffler, F.F.; on behalf of the ID-UKE COVID-19 Study Group. Longitudinal Development of Antibody Responses in COVID-19 Patients of Different Severity with ELISA, Peptide, and Glycan Arrays: An Immunological Case Series. Pathogens 2021, 10, 438. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040438

AMA Style

Heidepriem J, Dahlke C, Kobbe R, Santer R, Koch T, Fathi A, Seco BMS, Ly ML, Schmiedel S, Schwinge D, Serna S, Sellrie K, Reichardt N-C, Seeberger PH, Addo MM, Loeffler FF, on behalf of the ID-UKE COVID-19 Study Group. Longitudinal Development of Antibody Responses in COVID-19 Patients of Different Severity with ELISA, Peptide, and Glycan Arrays: An Immunological Case Series. Pathogens. 2021; 10(4):438. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040438

Chicago/Turabian Style

Heidepriem, Jasmin; Dahlke, Christine; Kobbe, Robin; Santer, René; Koch, Till; Fathi, Anahita; Seco, Bruna M.S.; Ly, My L.; Schmiedel, Stefan; Schwinge, Dorothee; Serna, Sonia; Sellrie, Katrin; Reichardt, Niels-Christian; Seeberger, Peter H.; Addo, Marylyn M.; Loeffler, Felix F.; on behalf of the ID-UKE COVID-19 Study Group. 2021. "Longitudinal Development of Antibody Responses in COVID-19 Patients of Different Severity with ELISA, Peptide, and Glycan Arrays: An Immunological Case Series" Pathogens 10, no. 4: 438. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040438

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