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Soc. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 61 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Weaving together critical disability theory with a personal narrative, I share my own pandemic story of illness, grief, disruption, and care. My story is about being propelled to crip time, accept loss, and care radically in a society desperate to maintain the capitalist status quo. I ask: What does it mean to crip time and centre care as an arts-based researcher? What might a commitment to honouring crip time based on radical care do for me, for my research, and for others aspiring toward reworlding scholarship? This is a vulnerable piece to share, even as a tenured academic with the many privileges that bestows. I hope that by disclosing my story in this way, I invite critical conversation about both the limits of the neoliberal academy and the possibilities for holding onto liberatory politics within it. View this paper
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27 pages, 359 KiB  
Article
Look at Me, but Better”: The Experience of Young NEET Migrant Women between Vulnerability and Stifled Ambitions
by Laura Zanfrini and Cristina Giuliani
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020110 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
The experience and the condition of the vulnerability of young immigrant women with NEET status are not acknowledged in both research and social policy. Within the extreme variety gathered under the term NEET, this present article aims at exploring the experience of a [...] Read more.
The experience and the condition of the vulnerability of young immigrant women with NEET status are not acknowledged in both research and social policy. Within the extreme variety gathered under the term NEET, this present article aims at exploring the experience of a group of young non-EU migrant women aged between 18 and 31 living in Italy, who at the time of their participation in this study, were not engaged in education, employment, or training. Nineteen semi-structured interviews have been collected involving young women who migrated from Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Morocco, Pakistan, and Tunisia, in most cases through family reunification. Thematic analysis carried out on interview transcripts highlights the complexity and richness of the stories and experiences narrated by participants, composing a heterogeneous group marked by different levels of vulnerability and resilience capabilities, language skills, and involvement in the goal of finding a job. The perception of vulnerability that emerges from the women interviewed refers mainly to the relational dimension of life, which appears to be characterized by loneliness, a sense of isolation, and feelings of extraneousness (not belonging) with respect to an external context. Implications for policies aimed at this specific group of foreign women are discussed. Full article
17 pages, 369 KiB  
Article
Emotional Exhaustion and Engagement in Higher Education Students during a Crisis, Lessons Learned from COVID-19 Experience in Italian Universities
by Chiara Ghislieri, Domenico Sanseverino, Valentina Dolce, Paola Spagnoli, Amelia Manuti, Emanuela Ingusci and Tindara Addabbo
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020109 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Italian university students face an uncertain future characterised by a competitive neoliberal academic environment with high demands and a weak labour market that often cannot hire those who are best qualified. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated students’ uncertainty and negatively affected their well-being. [...] Read more.
Italian university students face an uncertain future characterised by a competitive neoliberal academic environment with high demands and a weak labour market that often cannot hire those who are best qualified. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated students’ uncertainty and negatively affected their well-being. The purpose of this study is to explore perceptions of academic life during the pandemic and to examine the relationship between study load, reduced academic performance, internet addiction, academic self-efficacy, and engagement and emotional exhaustion. A sample of university students (N = 10,298) from 11 Italian universities completed a self-report questionnaire about their academic and personal lives between May and June 2021. We performed two multiple linear regressions and one ANOVA to highlight gender differences. Results indicate that female students reported lower levels of engagement and academic self-efficacy, and higher levels of exhaustion and study demands compared to male students, while older students generally appear to exhibit higher levels of well-being. Study load, reduced academic performance, and internet addiction showed a negative association with engagement, particularly the first two, and a positive association with exhaustion, while self-efficacy was positively associated with engagement and negatively associated with exhaustion. The results suggest the need to introduce additional forms of support, such as psychological support, internet addiction awareness courses or counseling services. Full article
31 pages, 9051 KiB  
Article
Climate Change and Sustainability in Spanish Classrooms: State of the Art and Didactic Proposal
by Jordan Correa-González, Abel López-Díez, Jaime Díaz-Pacheco and Nerea Martín-Raya
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020108 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
Climate change has become a global challenge that must be faced in a cross-cutting manner from multiple fields and involving all citizens. The educational system, as a space that guarantees the training of students and the integral development of the person at the [...] Read more.
Climate change has become a global challenge that must be faced in a cross-cutting manner from multiple fields and involving all citizens. The educational system, as a space that guarantees the training of students and the integral development of the person at the social, intellectual and ethical levels, should be oriented towards increasing the environmental awareness of society, promoting practices and habits that respect the preservation of ecosystems and, in short, education for sustainability. The 2023–2024 academic year is the first in which the curricular content developed from the Organic Law 3/2020, of December 29, which modifies the Organic Law 2/2006, of May 3, on Education, popularly known as LOMLOE, will be fully implemented. This paper designs a learning situation on sustainability and climate change that can be implemented in the Spanish and European contexts, responding to Rosenshine’s principles of instruction, a circumstance that gives it enormous flexibility and makes it an interesting resource focused on helping geography teachers to face current challenges from an innovative, scientific, and inclusive perspective. Full article
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16 pages, 744 KiB  
Article
Same-Sex Marriages, Divorce and Children from the Prism of Methodological Triangulation
by Inmaculada Puertas Cañaveral, José Manuel Jiménez-Cabello, Diego Becerril-Ruiz and José Luis Paniza Prados
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020107 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1897
Abstract
This article delves into the social reality of same-sex couples breaking up in Spain, seeking to answer questions, such as: When and why does divorce occur? What type of divorces occur and what is child custody like? To accomplish this, an overview and [...] Read more.
This article delves into the social reality of same-sex couples breaking up in Spain, seeking to answer questions, such as: When and why does divorce occur? What type of divorces occur and what is child custody like? To accomplish this, an overview and evolution of these marriages is provided; later the status of the issue regarding marriages and their terminations is explored. The investigation proposes triangulation as a methodological strategy using quantitative and qualitative techniques to achieve greater richness and guarantees in the results, indicating that marriages of same-sex couples have a distinctive idiosyncrasy in comparison to that of heterosexuals in the divorce process. Full article
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21 pages, 723 KiB  
Article
Human Rights from an Islamic Perspective: A Critical Review of Arabic Peer-Reviewed Articles
by Mohammed Almahfali and Helen Avery
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020106 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 11410
Abstract
The relationship between human rights and Islam is important in countries of the Arab world where religion plays a significant role in public debates and daily life. The topic is particularly relevant at a time of sharpening conflicts and polarization, when forms of [...] Read more.
The relationship between human rights and Islam is important in countries of the Arab world where religion plays a significant role in public debates and daily life. The topic is particularly relevant at a time of sharpening conflicts and polarization, when forms of government in the region, the current world order, and the legitimacy of international organizations are increasingly contested. Much of the scholarly work published in English on this topic draws on sources available in English. This review, therefore, aims to make a contribution to the field through analysis and discussion of academic papers published in Arabic. A search was made in Google Scholar in April 2022 which yielded 12 publications published in 2020 and 2021, after inclusion and exclusion criteria had been applied. These publications were analyzed drawing on the four framing categories. A summary is also given of the definitions, sources, and premises on which the arguments of the publications draw. The reviewed papers contrast the universal and divine foundation of Islamic human rights with the limitations of modern conceptualizations based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The latter is described as emanating from Western hegemonistic aspirations and as detached from moral and spiritual values. The papers consequently argue that human rights would be guaranteed globally by generalizing a system of governance based on Shari’a law and the ideal of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. Little attention is given to human rights abuses observed in Muslim societies, diverse interpretations of Islamic source texts, or concrete measures to improve human rights protections in practice. Importantly, the arguments presented in these papers tend to reinforce a contemporary discourse that frames conflicting visions on human rights as a ‘clash of civilisations’ between ‘Islam’ and ‘the West’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
14 pages, 823 KiB  
Article
Social Workers’ Involvement in Policy Practice in Portugal
by Rita Carrilho and Francisco Branco
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020105 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
This article presents the results of the first survey-based study in Portugal about the level of involvement of social workers in social policies, aiming to determine if policy practice is embedded in Portuguese social workers’ professional practice and which factors may enhance or [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of the first survey-based study in Portugal about the level of involvement of social workers in social policies, aiming to determine if policy practice is embedded in Portuguese social workers’ professional practice and which factors may enhance or constraint such practice. Combining the Civic Voluntarism Model by Verba and colleagues and the Policy Practice Engagement Model by Gal and Weiss-Gal, which were considered as the main predictors of social workers’ engagement in policy practice, this study followed a quantitative approach, based on 265 valid answers to an online survey obtained through snowball sampling. The findings showed a low level of engagement in policy practice activities among the social workers, especially those requiring a greater public exposure and acting with the media, policymakers, or public officers to share opinions, make a proposition, or report a problem. Considering the main factors of the socio-political context, the professional context, the organisational context, and individual factors, the findings showed that individual factors explained most of the differences in the social workers’ involvement in policy practice, especially when considering interest and efficacy. This study pointed out the need for further research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
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18 pages, 1323 KiB  
Article
The ‘Arab Clans’ Discourse: Narrating Racialization, Kinship, and Crime in the German Media
by Özgür Özvatan, Bastian Neuhauser and Gökçe Yurdakul
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020104 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7515
Abstract
In the last decade’s media discourse, particular Arab immigrant groups received the name ‘Arab clans’ and have been portrayed as criminal kinship networks irrespective of actual involvement in crime. We question how ‘Arab clans’ are categorized, criminalized, and racialized in the German media. [...] Read more.
In the last decade’s media discourse, particular Arab immigrant groups received the name ‘Arab clans’ and have been portrayed as criminal kinship networks irrespective of actual involvement in crime. We question how ‘Arab clans’ are categorized, criminalized, and racialized in the German media. To answer this question, we collected clan-related mainstream media articles published between 2010 and 2020. Our first-step quantitative topic modeling of ‘clan’ coverage (n = 23,893) shows that the discourse about ‘Arab clans’ is situated as the most racialized and criminalized vis-à-vis other ‘clan’ discourses and is channeled through three macro topics: law and order, family and kinship, and criminal groupness. Second, to explore the deeper meaning of the discourse about ‘Arab clans’ by juxtaposing corpus linguistics and novel narrative approaches to the discourse-historical approach, we qualitatively analyzed 97 text passages extracted with the keywords in context search (KWIC). Our analysis reveals three prevalent argumentative strategies (Arab clan immigration out of control, Arab clans as enclaves, policing Arab clans) embedded in a media narrative of ethnonational rebirth: a story of Germany’s present-day need (‘moral panic’) to police and repel the threats associated with ‘the Arab clan Other’ in order for a celebratory return to a nostalgically idealized pre-Arab-immigration social/moral order. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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19 pages, 1753 KiB  
Article
Work Adjustment in an Employment Program for Colombian People Involved in Armed Conflict: A Multilevel Mixed-Methods Case Study
by Concha Antón Rubio, Merlin Patricia Grueso Hinestroza and Mónica López-Santamaría
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020103 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Work plays a significant role in societies; however, currently, work is a particularly difficult area for those in the most vulnerable social categories who have been heavily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is scarce research on labor integration of people affected [...] Read more.
Work plays a significant role in societies; however, currently, work is a particularly difficult area for those in the most vulnerable social categories who have been heavily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is scarce research on labor integration of people affected by armed conflicts from work adjustment (WA) perspectives, we have developed research to understand the relationship between people and their work setting in an employment program inspired in supported employment models (SEMs). To achieve this, a nonexperimental mixed-methods research design with a convergent parallel approach and multilevel design was developed. The results show that the work-adjustment approach is a useful framework with which to understand the relationship between the work setting and individuals. The conclusions of the research are as follows: (1) people who have been involved in armed conflicts can develop attitudes and abilities to properly develop their work; (2) the configuration of a labor-inclusion model is related to the results in the medium and long term, both in the program itself and in its participants and society; (3) the SEMs contribute to the effective inclusion of people affected by armed conflicts, which have low skills, scarce social contacts, and low educational levels. Full article
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22 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
The Vulnerability of Young Refugees Living in Reception Centres in Luxembourg: An Overview of Conditions and Experiences across Subjective Temporal Imaginaries
by Amalia Gilodi, Catherine Richard, Isabelle Albert and Birte Nienaber
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020102 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1786
Abstract
Vulnerability has become a key concept in discourses and policies on international protection and reception of refugees. In this context, the notion has been described as a tool to provide special provisions to groups at higher risk or one to perpetuate political agendas [...] Read more.
Vulnerability has become a key concept in discourses and policies on international protection and reception of refugees. In this context, the notion has been described as a tool to provide special provisions to groups at higher risk or one to perpetuate political agendas within increasingly hostile reception systems. However, vulnerability as an analytical concept has received less attention, with both policymakers and scholars often employing different conceptualisations of vulnerability or treating it as a self-explanatory condition. Building on a previous conceptual elaboration, this paper sets out to apply an understanding of vulnerability as multi-layered, dynamic and embedded in a study of the lived experiences of a group of potentially ‘vulnerable’ migrants, based on ‘fixed’ contextual criteria. Drawing from in-depth interviews with young adults who obtained refugee status in Luxembourg but still live in ‘temporary’ reception centres, this paper provides a wide analytical overview of the conditions of vulnerability encountered by this specific group of migrants, in the process of building their lives in a new country. Following the participants’ subjective temporal imaginaries of past, present and future, the analysis highlights and problematises conditions of structural, situational and experiential vulnerability emerging from their accounts and experiences, and discusses their possible implications. Full article
17 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of Responses to Sexual Assault against Women in Public Space: Practical Gender Needs or Strategic Gender Interests?
by María Silvestre Cabrera, Iratxe Aristegui Fradua and Raquel Royo Prieto
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020101 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 6336
Abstract
This article focuses on sexual violence and the learned fear of rape experienced by women in their use of public space, understood as social constructions of a system of domination. We analyze a series of data, drawn from secondary sources, on the prevalence [...] Read more.
This article focuses on sexual violence and the learned fear of rape experienced by women in their use of public space, understood as social constructions of a system of domination. We analyze a series of data, drawn from secondary sources, on the prevalence and perception of sexual assault in public space. This data confirms that sexual assault in public spaces is a real risk and that, as such, it is perceived and experienced by the majority of women. We have also selected and presented a series of institutional initiatives aimed at preventing sexual assaults on women in public spaces at night-time. Finally, we have constructed an index to study whether the selected institutional responses respond to practical gender needs or to strategic gender interests. The article concludes that all of these initiatives have a greater impact in the area of gender needs, but they are not able to reverse the structural causes of sexual assault or to contribute to true social change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family Cultural Norms Sustaining Violence against Women)
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15 pages, 6596 KiB  
Article
Knock, Knock! The Next Wave of Populism Has Arrived! An Analysis of Confirmations, Denials, and New Developments in a Phenomenon That Is Taking Center Stage
by Daniele Battista
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020100 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
Giorgia Meloni has long been one of the most important figures on the political scene. Her strength has been, from the very beginning, clear and effective communication, combined with a populist style based on the credibility of her path. Our contribution will attempt [...] Read more.
Giorgia Meloni has long been one of the most important figures on the political scene. Her strength has been, from the very beginning, clear and effective communication, combined with a populist style based on the credibility of her path. Our contribution will attempt to highlight the interweaving that links this discipline to the complex and varied representation of populism. The analyses are based on extensive documentation of data for a period from July 2020 to September 2022, the month in which the vote was held in Italy. This periodisation allowed us to have a broad view of the phenomenon and a consequent linear picture of the state of the art. Moreover, in this way, we were able to cover three years of particularly intense political debate, allowing us to outline the underlying motivations that led to electoral success. Based on existing research, the phenomena are described and then framed in relation to the social and political context in which they were experienced, taking into account the interconnection with communication. In this sense, this contribution aims to introduce a perspective that corrects most analyses in this field, which assume that populist parties have lost ground in Europe with the advent of the pandemic. In fact, this study argues that the communication strategies linked to some of Giorgia Meloni’s political choices, including all forms of populism, have generally succeeded in attracting greater public interest while maintaining the characteristics of a phenomenon with pop traits that favoured its rise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elections and Political Campaigns in Times of Uncertainty)
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17 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
Crip Time and Radical Care in/as Artful Politics
by May Chazan
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020099 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
This article brings together critical disability scholarship and personal narrative, sharing the author’s pandemic story of disruption, caregiving, grief, burnout, cancer, and post-operative fatigue. It offers critical reflection on the limits of the neoliberal academy and possibilities for practicing liberatory politics within it, [...] Read more.
This article brings together critical disability scholarship and personal narrative, sharing the author’s pandemic story of disruption, caregiving, grief, burnout, cancer, and post-operative fatigue. It offers critical reflection on the limits of the neoliberal academy and possibilities for practicing liberatory politics within it, posing two central questions: What does it mean to crip time and centre care as an arts-based researcher? What might a commitment to honouring crip time based on radical care do for the author and their scholarship, and for others aspiring to conduct reworlding research? This analysis suggests that while committing to “slow scholarship” is a form of resistance to ableist capitalist and colonial pressures within the academy, slowness alone does not sufficiently crip research processes. Crip time, by contrast, involves multiply enfolded temporalities imposed upon (and reclaimed by) many researchers, particularly those living with disabilities and/or chronic illness. The article concludes that researchers can commit to recognizing crip time, valuing it, and caring for those living through it, including themselves, not only/necessarily by slowing down. Indeed, they can also carry out this work by actively imagining the crip futures they are striving to make along any/all trajectories and temporalities. This means simultaneously transforming academic institutions, refusing internalized pressures, reclaiming interdependence, and valuing all care work in whatever time it takes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rethinking Artful Politics: Bodies of Difference Remaking Body Worlds)
14 pages, 472 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Work-Related Barriers on Job Satisfaction of Practitioners Working with Migrants
by Hannah Brendel, Maha Yomn Sbaa, Salvatore Zappala, Gabriele Puzzo and Luca Pietrantoni
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020098 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2170
Abstract
The work environment of practitioners working with migrants may be very demanding as they are frequently exposed to the sad narratives of such a vulnerable population, the lack of professional support, or the frequent change of policies towards refugees and asylum seekers. Little [...] Read more.
The work environment of practitioners working with migrants may be very demanding as they are frequently exposed to the sad narratives of such a vulnerable population, the lack of professional support, or the frequent change of policies towards refugees and asylum seekers. Little research has been conducted to explore the job satisfaction of practitioners working with migrants and the organizational characteristics that can hinder or promote such satisfaction. The present study investigated the relationship between work-related barriers (i.e., intra-organizational, legal, and interaction-related barriers) and job satisfaction of practitioners working with migrants, also testing if perceived organizational efficacy is mediating this relation. This study was part of a larger European funded project, and participants were 428 First-Line Practitioners working with migrants in various sectors (e.g., social and health services, immigration and asylum services, or border guards) and working in several European countries. Data were collected through an online survey in the period between October and December 2020. Results showed that intra-organizational and legal barriers had a negative impact on job satisfaction, while interaction-related barriers did not have any. Perceived organizational efficacy mediated the relationship between two work-related barriers (intra-organizational and interaction-related barriers) and job satisfaction. These findings suggest that organizations working with migrants should focus on addressing intra-organizational and legal barriers, and on implementing actions aimed at building employees’ collective efficacy beliefs to improve their job satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
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14 pages, 628 KiB  
Article
Estimating the Impact of Digital Nomads’ Sustainable Responsibility on Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy
by Inês Mourato, Álvaro Dias and Leandro Pereira
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020097 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3051
Abstract
Digital nomads live outside of the classical organizational borders and can be seen as ‘contemporary entrepreneurs’ who bring disruptive business models into different industries, giving value to different working cultures and different types of capital. Because they are operating out of their home [...] Read more.
Digital nomads live outside of the classical organizational borders and can be seen as ‘contemporary entrepreneurs’ who bring disruptive business models into different industries, giving value to different working cultures and different types of capital. Because they are operating out of their home country, their social responsibility as entrepreneurs may have different implications. This study aims to explore the outcomes of digital nomads’ social responsibility in terms of self-efficacy and innovation. To test the hypothesis model, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze survey data. The results show that tourism firms should always have in mind their social responsibility levels to attract this target niche and should pay attention to the fact that they are mostly solo travelers, so they value the sense of community of a place and its legal, bureaucratic, and flexible terms of living. Findings also show that social and environmental concerns are more associated to social self-efficacy than to self-efficacy. The results complement existing research by helping tourism businesses and destination managers to understand the implications of the digital nomads’ social responsibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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12 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Watching Relationships Build over Time: A Video Analysis of a Hybrid Intergenerational Practice Program
by Jennifer Kosiol and Gabriela Di Perna
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020096 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Intergenerational programs are devoted to bringing older adults and children together because of their mutual benefits for both parties, such as reduction of ageism, relationship building, and shared learning. This intergenerational practice program included high school children and residents at an over-55 retirement [...] Read more.
Intergenerational programs are devoted to bringing older adults and children together because of their mutual benefits for both parties, such as reduction of ageism, relationship building, and shared learning. This intergenerational practice program included high school children and residents at an over-55 retirement village. The aim of this study was to develop an intergenerational shared learning program during COVID-19 using a hybrid model of face-to-face and videoconferencing technology. As a result of video analysis, researchers observed participant interactions and engagement during face-to-face and video conferencing sessions. The findings highlight the importance of a program structure that adapts to the changing environment and recognises that different settings (video and face-to-face) require different relationship-building activities. In addition, co-collaboration in the development of the program structure was essential to facilitate shared learnings. Full article
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18 pages, 1030 KiB  
Article
What Is in a Name? Exploring Perceptions of Surname Change in Hiring Evaluations in Academia
by Vasilena Stefanova, Ioana Latu and Laura Taylor
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020095 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
The motherhood penalty reflects inequalities in the workplace based on caregiver status. A number of factors have been identified as potential triggers of motherhood penalty effects, such as becoming pregnant or taking maternity leave. However, little is known as to whether these effects [...] Read more.
The motherhood penalty reflects inequalities in the workplace based on caregiver status. A number of factors have been identified as potential triggers of motherhood penalty effects, such as becoming pregnant or taking maternity leave. However, little is known as to whether these effects could also be triggered by more subtle cues that may signal potential changes in caregiver status. The current study investigated the impact of surname change visible on publication lists in academics’ Google Scholar profiles on evaluations of competence, commitment, work–family balance, hiring, and promotion likelihood. Contrary to the predictions in our preregistration, the findings showed that women who have changed their surname received more favourable evaluations compared to those who did not. In addition, female participants favoured female academics who have changed their surname compared to those who did not and this was mediated by higher perceived competence and commitment scores. These findings were interpreted through the lens of social role theory and the role prioritisation model, suggesting that behaviours that are consistent with gendered expectations are evaluated more favourably. Full article
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18 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Negotiating and Voicing: A Study of Employment Experiences among Vietnamese Marriage Immigrant Women in Taiwan
by Ya-Ling Wu
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020094 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Applying a sociocultural approach and poststructural feminist theories as its framework, this study analyzed interviews with nine Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Taiwan to explore their employment experiences in the process of crossing national and cultural boundaries. These low-skilled women labored to accumulate [...] Read more.
Applying a sociocultural approach and poststructural feminist theories as its framework, this study analyzed interviews with nine Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Taiwan to explore their employment experiences in the process of crossing national and cultural boundaries. These low-skilled women labored to accumulate essential capital and struggled to be workers in demand. They accepted the improved employment quality that was affected by gendered racialization. Stable employment empowered these women, and some even divorced to achieve personal autonomy. The results of this study suggest that employment was significant for the daily lives of these immigrant women. Obviously, their prior socialization in Vietnam and the life experiences and economic structure in Taiwan interacted to contribute to these women’s work experiences, and they continually developed agency and a voice to create their positions and life meanings by participating in the Taiwanese labor market. This study recommends further investigation of marriage immigrant women’s identities and voices in the workplace and their expression of sexuality and femininity in employment. Full article
14 pages, 790 KiB  
Article
The Negative Campaign on Telegram: The Political Use of Criticism during the 2021 Community of Madrid Elections
by Alejandra Tirado-García
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020093 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
Mobile instant messaging services have become a standard tool for political actors in communicating with citizens, especially during electoral campaigns. Telegram predominates in this context of disintermediated communication with the electorate. This platform enables parties to issue electoral information while taking advantage of [...] Read more.
Mobile instant messaging services have become a standard tool for political actors in communicating with citizens, especially during electoral campaigns. Telegram predominates in this context of disintermediated communication with the electorate. This platform enables parties to issue electoral information while taking advantage of this private space to criticize their adversaries. They do it with messages linked to negative emotions that generate a deeper impact on the audience, although they imply risks such as political polarization. This research analyzes the use of criticism to the adversary by political parties on Telegram during the electoral campaign. For this purpose, a descriptive study with an exploratory purpose was chosen, and a quantitative content analysis was carried out on 710 messages published on Telegram by the main political parties that stood for the elections to the Community of Madrid held in 2021. These parties are the PP, Ciudadanos, Podemos, Más Madrid, and Vox. The PSOE has been excluded as they did not make any publication during the analyzed period. The results show that criticizing the adversary is an emerging communication strategy in political parties on Telegram. Unlike other social media such as Facebook, the attacks on rivals are used on this platform mainly by the parties in the government, who focus their criticism on the president of the Spanish state. The attacks are mainly directed at the professional trajectory of their rivals and question the credibility of any action carried out by them. Full article
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22 pages, 2011 KiB  
Article
The Developmental Course of Parental Time Investments in Children from Infancy to Late Adolescence
by Jocelyn Wikle and Clara Cullen
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020092 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
This study evaluated parent-child time from a child’s infancy to age 18 for mothers and fathers. Parent-child time remains a key input in child development. The theory on intergenerational transfers from parents to children posits that mother-child time and father-child time may adjust [...] Read more.
This study evaluated parent-child time from a child’s infancy to age 18 for mothers and fathers. Parent-child time remains a key input in child development. The theory on intergenerational transfers from parents to children posits that mother-child time and father-child time may adjust as children grow. This study used the nationally representative American Time Use Survey (2003–2019; N = 148,576) to study children ages 0–18 in a pooled cross-sectional sample. Using least squares regression, the study traced out parent-child contact, playing time, quality time, and one-on-one time, and tested differences between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have provided substantial time investments in children of all ages. When children were young, mothers spent more time with children compared to fathers, highlighting a need for more nuanced discussions about differences in parenting between mothers and fathers. One-on-one time remained stable through late childhood and adolescence as parents prioritized focused interactions as children aged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
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10 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Violence against Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic: From Children to the Elderly
by Cristina Soeiro, Rita Ribeiro, Iris Almeida, Rosa Saavedra, Sónia Caridade, Ana Oliveira and Manuela Santos
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020091 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Women of all ages can be exposed to violence both within and outside of the home, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to analyze violence against women (VAW) before and during the first year of [...] Read more.
Women of all ages can be exposed to violence both within and outside of the home, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to analyze violence against women (VAW) before and during the first year of the pandemic in Portugal. Crimes perpetrated against female victims from 17 years old and younger to 65 years old and older were analyzed by comparing requests for help in 2019 and 2020. A total of 12,045 requests for help for VAW were received by the Portuguese Association for Victim Support and analyzed in the current study. The findings reveal a 16% increase in requests for help in 2020 and a 95% increase when the lockdown was implemented. That said, the most reported, intimate partner violence (IPV), showed a decrease of 5% in 2020. Furthermore, compared to 2019, requests for help concerning criminal offenses involving psychological violence in non-IPV contexts increased 79% in 2020, especially for victims 17 years old or younger (116%), and attempted femicide/femicide requests for help increased 53%. We are still in the early stages of understanding how the pandemic will affect this situation. Future directions concerning support of female victims during the pandemic are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
19 pages, 312 KiB  
Article
Contested Welfare: Migrant Organizations in Search of Their Role in the German Welfare State
by Eva Günzel, Ariana Kellmer, Ute Klammer and Thorsten Schlee
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020090 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
This article examines the role of migrant organizations (MOs) in the welfare state and reflects on the transformation and negotiation processes in the organization of social protection in a society that is increasingly characterized by various forms of cross-border mobility. The article first [...] Read more.
This article examines the role of migrant organizations (MOs) in the welfare state and reflects on the transformation and negotiation processes in the organization of social protection in a society that is increasingly characterized by various forms of cross-border mobility. The article first describes various transformation trends in German social policy by highlighting the activation policy and marketization of social services. This transformation concerns not only the formal (material) forms of social protection and the relationship between migration and social policy, but also the organization of social protection within the German welfare state. By analysing qualitative interviews with representatives of migrant organizations and welfare associations, we then show which roles are ascribed to MOs by other welfare actors in the context of social protection and how the MOs position themselves. We argue that these role ascriptions are part of a negotiation process that goes along with the transformation of the German welfare state. MOs are increasingly addressed in the context of integration policy, while at the same time they are becoming more professional and are claiming a stronger role in formal security services. The discussion of the changing role of MOs in the future organization of the welfare state also sheds light on the question of the successful adaptation of social services to the needs of migrants in general. Full article
12 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Reconceptualizing Activism through a Feminist Care Ethics in the Ontario (Canada) Early Childhood Education Context: Enacting Caring Activism
by Brooke Richardson, Alana Powell, Lisa Johnston and Rachel Langford
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020089 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
While early childhood education (ECE) in Ontario has always had a vibrant social activist community, it is characterized by tensions within and between individuals and institutions at the minor (childcare centres, post-secondary ECE programs) and major (mainstream media, public policy) levels. ECE activism [...] Read more.
While early childhood education (ECE) in Ontario has always had a vibrant social activist community, it is characterized by tensions within and between individuals and institutions at the minor (childcare centres, post-secondary ECE programs) and major (mainstream media, public policy) levels. ECE activism is further complicated by the fact that it often feels impossible/unsustainable within our existing patriarchal, neoliberal political structure. In this paper we, four ECE activists and leaders, turn to feminist care ethics (FCE) to reflect on our own activism experiences and imagine a different way of doing and sustaining activism in ECE. We insist that activism be understood as a relational process that bridges major and minor spaces (and everything in between) in a way that cares about, for, and with all those involved. We enthusiastically invite other to join us on this journey, exploring and navigating the beautiful awkwardness, discomfort, tension, and possibilities in caring for and with each other in major and minor political spaces. Full article
20 pages, 1361 KiB  
Article
The New Dimension of Social Inequality: The Agricultural Land Use Structure and the Development Level of Settlements
by Ágnes Győri and Imre Kovách
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020088 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
The structure of land ownership and land use changed significantly after the fall of the communist regime in most CEE countries. The goal of this paper is to present a unique analysis of the highly concentrated Hungarian land system and model spatial differences. [...] Read more.
The structure of land ownership and land use changed significantly after the fall of the communist regime in most CEE countries. The goal of this paper is to present a unique analysis of the highly concentrated Hungarian land system and model spatial differences. Using settlements as observation units, this research proposes a methodology to include data on land of all individual and corporate farms. First, according to the dominant farm size, we classified the farms into six types of land use structures, applying latent profile analysis. Then, we studied the distribution of their geographical location. We examined the statistical relationship between land ownership structure and the economic, social, and infrastructural characteristics and development level of settlements. One of the unexpected results of the research is that the dominance of large farms is mostly related to the higher values of the development indicators of the settlements. Full article
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11 pages, 510 KiB  
Article
Social Media Affordances of Ephemerality and Permanence: Social Comparison, Self-Esteem, and Body Image Concerns
by Donggyu Kim and Soomin Kim
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020087 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7826
Abstract
Instagram provides users with different features, including posts and stories. Instagram post stays on the users’ feeds permanently unless the content is deleted. An Instagram story has an ephemeral nature as the uploaded content vanishes after 24 h. Through a survey of 224 [...] Read more.
Instagram provides users with different features, including posts and stories. Instagram post stays on the users’ feeds permanently unless the content is deleted. An Instagram story has an ephemeral nature as the uploaded content vanishes after 24 h. Through a survey of 224 respondents, this study explored individuals’ psychological constructs when using different Instagram features. Instagram usage pattern (i.e., use of different features (video, emoji, etc.), categories of content (food, selfie, etc.) that users usually post, reasons for editing photos (slim body, flawless skin, etc.), amount of time to create and upload a post/story), social comparison, self-esteem, and body image concerns based on the user’s perception of ephemerality and permanency were examined. Results demonstrated that the perception of ephemerality on Instagram stories were negatively related to social comparison and body image concerns. In addition, the longer the amount of time the user spent on posting either a post or story on Instagram, the higher the likelihood the user was to socially compare. Overall, the findings align with previous research suggesting that Instagram users who socially compare are likely to have lower self-esteem and higher body image concerns. Full article
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17 pages, 702 KiB  
Article
How Did the COVID-19 Pandemic and Digital Divide Impact Ciganos/Roma School Pathways?
by Susana Mourão, Sara Pinheiro, Maria Manuela Mendes, Pedro Caetano and Olga Magano
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020086 - 08 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic forced the Portuguese government to declare various lockdowns between 2020 and 2022. The first State of Emergency was enforced in March 2020, in which face-to-face classroom teaching was repeatedly interrupted. At that time, families were expected to provide the necessary [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic forced the Portuguese government to declare various lockdowns between 2020 and 2022. The first State of Emergency was enforced in March 2020, in which face-to-face classroom teaching was repeatedly interrupted. At that time, families were expected to provide the necessary supplies for digital learning, with some support from the government, municipalities, civil society, and local institutions. Nevertheless, many families already lived under precarious conditions before the pandemic, and so the lockdown measures increased their vulnerability, with a probable impact on student school attendance and conditions enabling academic success. Since Ciganos/Roma are part of this vulnerable population, we intend to explore how the COVID-19 pandemic impacts the school pathways of these students, namely in secondary education, where they represent a minority group. The data are derived from a variety of qualitative sources collected during research carried out in the two Metropolitan Areas in Portugal. The COVID-19 pandemic affected the youngsters’ access to classes and their motivation to attend school, and opens the discussion about how because of the government’s universal measures, by failing to consider social diversity, in particular Ciganos/Roma Ciganos/Roma families, this pandemic crisis may disproportionally affect the education of their children and youth. The findings highlight, firstly, that these impacts continue to be rendered invisible and naturalized in the public sphere and, secondly, that the measures and legislation underlying the pandemic effects continue not to include Ciganos in policymaking processes. Full article
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17 pages, 1309 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Political Debate over the COVID-19 Vaccination on Twitter: Emotions and Polarization in the Spanish Public Sphere
by Concha Pérez-Curiel, Ricardo Domínguez-García and Ana Velasco-Molpeceres
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020085 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
In a scenario marked by COVID-19, communication has posed a real challenge for institutions. Since the first case of COVID-19, Spain has faced the enormous challenge of an unprecedented health, economic, and social crisis. The public sphere has put its trust in vaccination [...] Read more.
In a scenario marked by COVID-19, communication has posed a real challenge for institutions. Since the first case of COVID-19, Spain has faced the enormous challenge of an unprecedented health, economic, and social crisis. The public sphere has put its trust in vaccination as the only chance for the country’s recovery. To determine the role played by political leaders in the debate on vaccination and citizens’ perception of crisis management, this article analyzes the messages posted on Twitter by the four leaders of the parties with the most representation in parliament: Pedro Sánchez (PSOE), Pablo Casado (PP), Santiago Abascal (Vox), and Yolanda Díaz (Podemos). Using a methodology for comparative content analysis on Twitter, a sample was established that began at the start of the vaccination process and inoculation with the first dose, and covered the entire year that followed. The research results, which contrasted with those collected in demographic surveys, reflected an increase in polarization and electoral use of the vaccine, which took precedence over the awareness-raising discourse typical of public campaigns. Full article
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23 pages, 510 KiB  
Article
Two-Speed Integration? A Comparative Analysis of Barriers and Resilience Strategies of Young Migrants in Vulnerable Conditions in Romania
by Smaranda Cimpoeru, Monica Roman, Vlad I. Roșca, Elena-Maria Prada, Ioana Manafi and Laura Mureșan
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020084 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
This comparative study focuses on the barriers to social and economic inclusion, as well as the integration and coping strategies of Arab and Moldovan migrants in Romania. We explored the integration barriers they face, the main individual and societal aspects that lead to [...] Read more.
This comparative study focuses on the barriers to social and economic inclusion, as well as the integration and coping strategies of Arab and Moldovan migrants in Romania. We explored the integration barriers they face, the main individual and societal aspects that lead to their resilience, and their self-perception of vulnerability, by carrying out 35 psychosocial interviews and four focus groups with young migrants (aged 18 to 29), belonging to the two different subgroups (of Arab and Moldovan origins, respectively). The comparative analysis revealed that migrants from Arab countries face harsher integration barriers compared to Moldovan migrants, they have a more severe self-perceived vulnerability, and their integration may be a longer and more complex process. Results showed that mastery of the language and the network of acquaintances play an indispensable role in inclusion. Moldovans integrate more easily than Arabs, thanks to their fluency in Romanian, the native language shared with the majority local population, the geographical and cultural proximity to the country of destination, and the larger personal network. We highlight the need for improving integration policies for young migrants, tailoring them to the specific problems and barriers that migrants are facing. Full article
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18 pages, 2787 KiB  
Article
Neoliberalism, Power, and Right to the City and the Urban Divide in Sydney, Australia
by Khandakar Farid Uddin and Awais Piracha
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020083 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3446
Abstract
Sydney, the capital of the Australian state of New South Wales, is geographically divided by socio-economic conditions and urban opportunities. However, the division in Sydney has not been investigated from an urban planning perspective. This research hypothesises that the urban planning system and [...] Read more.
Sydney, the capital of the Australian state of New South Wales, is geographically divided by socio-economic conditions and urban opportunities. However, the division in Sydney has not been investigated from an urban planning perspective. This research hypothesises that the urban planning system and its practice-produced consequences promote inequalities in Sydney. This study conceptualises Sydney’s urban inequality in the context of critical concepts of neoliberalism, the theory of power, and the right to the city. Based on semi-structured interviews, secondary documents, and data analysis, this research claims that residents of lower socio-economic areas lag behind compared to others. The paper emphasises the significance of a just city and strong community engagement to reduce the disparate urban policy practices that influence urban divides in Sydney. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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16 pages, 2183 KiB  
Article
Political Stability, Confidence in the Future, and Values
by Nygmetzhan Kuzenbayev and Riccardo Pelizzo
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020082 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3045
Abstract
According to the literature, modernization is associated with cultural change along the two value dimensions: from survival to self-expression/emancipative values and from traditional to secular-rational values. This value change has generally been viewed as the product of both material and non-material forces; however, [...] Read more.
According to the literature, modernization is associated with cultural change along the two value dimensions: from survival to self-expression/emancipative values and from traditional to secular-rational values. This value change has generally been viewed as the product of both material and non-material forces; however, previous studies have used mainly material proxies for non-material, social, and psychological variables. Instead, in this paper, we propose and test a modified theoretical model that allows us to assess both the direct and indirect effects of material conditions, such as economic wealth and political stability, on emancipative and secular values by including variables that capture non-material factors, such as the respondents’ fears about their economic future and about the possible destabilization of the political systems in which they live. We conduct empirical analyses both at the individual level, using the cross-sectional data from the World Values Survey, and at the aggregate level. Both sets of analyses revealed that fears about the stability of the political system are the single most significant determinant of value change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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18 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
It Is Home: Perceptions, Community, and Narratives about Change
by Michael R. Cope, Haylie M. June, Scott R. Sanders, Greta L. Asay, Hannah Z. Hendricks, Elizabeth Long-Meek and Carol Ward
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12020081 - 02 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Utah’s Heber Valley has experienced rapid and (relatively) sustained growth since the 1990s, in part due to being chosen as a host venue for the 2002 Winter Olympics. As conditions in the Valley changed by virtue of this growth, individuals had to redefine [...] Read more.
Utah’s Heber Valley has experienced rapid and (relatively) sustained growth since the 1990s, in part due to being chosen as a host venue for the 2002 Winter Olympics. As conditions in the Valley changed by virtue of this growth, individuals had to redefine their relationship with their community at large, as well as what community means to them individually. As individuals integrate new conditions into their imagined communities, they are also required to imagine communities in ways they never have before. The community’s story is rewritten simultaneously along with individuals’ own stories. These changing stories are shaped and indicated by the reconstruction of residents’ narratives about their community, i.e., their community stories. In this paper, we (1) explore how Heber Valley residents’ narratives change as a result of preparing for, participating in, and recovering from the Olympics, (2) verify these findings using survey data gathered during the same time period, and (3) examine how changes in residents’ narratives in Heber Valley impacted the subjective evaluation of community. To do so, we rely on longitudinal data gathered among principal communities in Heber Valley with additional data generated from a hermeneutic content analysis of archival data found in the area’s community newspaper (The Wasatch Wave). Survey data were gathered once a year over a five-year period from February 1999 through February 2003, with additional waves gathered in February 2007, 2012, and 2018. Our results indicated that the community narratives did change as a result of the Olympics, our survey data verified these community changes over time, and changes in residents’ community stories impacted survey responses when residents were asked about community sentiments. Full article
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