Demand Response Technology Readiness Levels for Energy Management in Blocks of Buildings
- More efficient utilisation of network, generator and consumer assets
- Supporting the increased penetration of renewable energy on national energy grids
- Easing capacity constraints on distribution networks and facilitating the further uptake of distributed generation
- Reducing required generator margins and the costs of calling on traditional spinning reserve
- Improving environmental credentials by reducing emissions
2. DR-BoB Demand Response Solution
3. Demand Response Technology Readiness Level
- Technology refers to the building/site energy and communication systems which include metering and telemetry, flexible load, local energy generation and energy storage plant etc.;
- Readiness refers to time, specifically it means ready for operations at the present time;
- Level refers to the extent of the capability of a block of buildings to take part in the DR-BoB energy management solution.
- Block of buildings refers to a group of buildings that may or may not be in proximity to each other if under common governance.
- DRTRL-0: no capability, which is defined as a building/site that does not have the technical capacity to enable the implementation of the DR-BoB solution;
- DRTRL-1: manual capability, which is defined as a building/site that has flexibility that can be controlled in a manual capacity by facility managers, or end consumers, making a direct intervention to apply control signals, typically based on a recommendation notification such as an email;
- DRTRL-2: partially automated capability, which is defined as a building/site that has the minimum technology required to partially enable some of the automated functioning of the DR-BoB energy management solution by directly responding to tele-command signals without manual intervention, but will still require manual intervention for some functionality;
- DRTRL-3: full capability, which is defined as a building/site that has the technologies required to fully enable all of the automated functioning of the DR-BoB energy management solution through tele-command signals, without requiring manual application of control.
- Consumption assets that can be deactivated for a short period by manual direct control without deleterious consequences;
- Wide Area Network (WAN) communications (dedicated network connection or relevant ports open in firewall for OpenVPN);
- Occupants with access to notification services such as email, twitter, intranet pop-ups etc.
- Automated energy metering at the building level (high frequency, <1 h) able to export data with low latency, <1 h;
- Controllable assets, either dispatchable behind the meter (BTM) generation or turn-down demand, whose schedule can be altered for a short period by without deleterious consequences;
- HVAC assets controlled by BMS accessible via an open or standard protocol;
- Automated, low-latency (<15 min), high-frequency (<half-hourly) asset-specific energy metering;
- HVAC assets under direct control via an open or standard or BMS protocol;
- Temperature sensors in areas served by HVAC assets under direct control.
- Energy storage assets (electrical, thermal).
4. DRTRL Exemplified by the DR-BoB Project Demonstration Sites
5. Case Study: DTRL-3 at UK Pilot Site
6. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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|Site & Building Use||Controllable Assets||Initial DRTRL||Implemented DRTRL|
|Teesside University, UK, Educational facilities, offices, catering & low rise residential||Chilled water system, fan coil units, electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, combined heat and power (CHP), backup generator & uninterruptible power supply (UPS)||1—Half hourly automated meters report to data server with one day delay. BMS with temperature sensors & assets accessible only over proprietary protocol.||3—Existing half hourly metering system upgraded to reduce latency to <15 min, BMS upgraded to enable direct control over standard (BACnet) protocol & data gathering from room temperature sensors.|
|Business Park, Anglet, France, Workshop, training centre, & offices||Microgrid, heat pumps, renewable energy systems (PV), electrical storage||1—Multiple metering systems & BMS within buildings. No metering of wood consumption. Open IP communication present but not configured.||3—Metering & BMS data export established & configured at high frequency (15 min). One additional meter required at carpentry workshop. Existing direct control hardware configured.|
|Fondazione Poliambulanza Hospital, Italy, healthcare & offices||Chilled water system, combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP), food carts, laptops||1—Metering system at building scale not asset scale. Low temporal resolution (daily). Sophisticated BMS with multiple assets & sensors.||2—Metering system upgraded to improve resolution to 15 min & reduce latency to <15 min. Hardware available for direct control but manual implementation at building manager’s request.|
|Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania; Educational facilities, leisure, offices & high rise residential||Chilled water system, washing machines, swimming pool pumps||1—Isolated manual meters & control systems on assets.||2—Building Energy & Management System required to enable control over standard protocols & export of data at <15 min latency, 15 min resolution.|
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Crosbie, T.; Broderick, J.; Short, M.; Charlesworth, R.; Dawood, M. Demand Response Technology Readiness Levels for Energy Management in Blocks of Buildings. Buildings 2018, 8, 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8020013
Crosbie T, Broderick J, Short M, Charlesworth R, Dawood M. Demand Response Technology Readiness Levels for Energy Management in Blocks of Buildings. Buildings. 2018; 8(2):13. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8020013Chicago/Turabian Style
Crosbie, Tracey, John Broderick, Michael Short, Richard Charlesworth, and Muneeb Dawood. 2018. "Demand Response Technology Readiness Levels for Energy Management in Blocks of Buildings" Buildings 8, no. 2: 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8020013