# Framework for BIM-Based Simulation of Construction Operations Implemented in a Game Engine

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Background

#### 2.1. BIM-Based Simulation

#### 2.2. Simulation Model Reuse

#### 2.3. Enhancement of Simulation Visualisation through Animation

## 3. Methodology

#### 3.1. Framework Design

#### 3.2. Simulation-Based Animations

## 4. Proposed Framework

#### 4.1. Environment Module

#### 4.2. User Input Module

#### 4.3. Pre-Processing Module

#### 4.4. Simulation Module

#### 4.5. Visualisation Module

## 5. Implementation

## 6. Case Study

#### 6.1. Project Description

#### 6.2. Generic Simulation Model

#### 6.3. Constructable Element

#### 6.4. BIM Model

#### 6.5. Simulation Model

#### 6.6. Case Study Results

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 7.**Class diagram of the distributed simulation component. This diagram uses standard UML notation: Hollow diamonds represent aggregation; filled diamonds represent composition; stars indicate multiplicity (1..* means that 1 or more instances of the child class are part of the parent class, * means that zero or more instances of the child class are part of the parent class).

**Figure 14.**Resources at different points in time in Scenario 2. (

**a**) Mason idle at time 14.25. (

**b**) Mason preparing mortar at time 42.57. (

**c**) Mason laying block at time 184.13.

**Figure 15.**Simulation results from the scenarios of zone 3. (

**a**) Scenario 6. (

**b**) Scenario 7. (

**c**) Scenario 8. (

**d**) Scenario 9.

Task | ID |
---|---|

Load blocks into wheelbarrow | MW-01 |

Move blocks to wall construction site | MW-02 |

Unload blocks in wall construction site | MW-03 |

Load aggregate into wheelbarrow | MW-04 |

Move aggregate to mortar prep site | MW-05 |

Unload aggregate in mortar prep site | MW-06 |

Load cement bag into wheelbarrow | MW-07 |

Move cement bag to mortar prep site | MW-08 |

Unload cement bag in mortar prep site | MW-09 |

Fill bucket with water | MW-10 |

Move water to mortar prep site | MW-11 |

Prepare mortar | MW-12 |

Fill bucket with mortar | MW-13 |

Move mortar to wall construction site | MW-14 |

Lay concrete block | MW-15 |

Next Event | Conditions |
---|---|

CU-2 | mortar volume in preparation site < 0.02 |

mortar prepared < mortar needed | |

MW-01 | blocks in wall construction site < blocks needed |

blocks in storage site > 0 | |

MW-13 | mason ready to lay blocks needs mortar |

volume of mortar in preparation site > 0 | |

MW-15 | blocks in wall construction site > 0 |

volume of mortar in preparation site > 0 |

Next Event | Conditions |
---|---|

MW-04 | fine aggregate volume in mortar preparation site < 0.16 |

MW-07 | cement bags in mortar preparation site < 1 |

MW-10 | water buckets in mortar preparation site < 2 |

MW-12 | fine aggregate volume in mortar preparation site ≥ 0.16 |

cement bags in mortar preparation site ≥ 1 | |

water buckets in mortar preparation site ≥ 2 |

ID | Tasks | Distribution | Parameters |
---|---|---|---|

D-01 | MW-01, MW-03 | Triangular | $a=0.125$, $b=0.625$, $c=0.2$ |

D-02 ∗ | MW-02, MW-05, MW-08 | Triangular | $a=0.0125$, $b=0.03$, $c=0.02$ |

D-03 | MW-04 | Triangular | $a=0.6$, $b=1.2$, $c=1.0$ |

D-04 | MW-06 | Triangular | $a=0.16$, $b=0.5$, $c=0.3$ |

D-05 | MW-07, MW-09 | Triangular | $a=0.3$, $b=0.9$, $c=0.5$ |

D-06 | MW-10, MW-13 | Deterministic | $t=0.5$ |

D-07 | MW-11 | Deterministic | $t=1.0$ |

D-08 | MW-12 | Normal | $\mu =12.562$, $\sigma =5.1949$ |

D-09 | MW-14 | Normal | $\mu =1.73463$, $\sigma =0.35884$ |

D-10 | MW-15 | Weibull | $\mathit{k}=2.01378$, $\lambda =1.27307$ |

D-11 ★ ∗ | Return | Triangular | $a=0.01$, $b=0.02$, $c=0.0125$ |

Scenario ID | Zone ID | Average Distance to Storage Site (m) | Number of Masons | Number of Helpers |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 4 | 670.93 | 1 | 1 |

2 | 4 | 670.93 | 1 | 2 |

3 | 4 | 670.93 | 1 | 3 |

4 | 4 | 670.93 | 1 | 4 |

5 | 4 | 670.92 | 1 | 5 |

6 | 3 | 470.93 | 1 | 1 |

7 | 3 | 470.93 | 1 | 2 |

8 | 3 | 470.93 | 1 | 3 |

9 | 3 | 470.93 | 1 | 4 |

10 | 2 | 320.93 | 1 | 1 |

11 | 2 | 320.93 | 1 | 2 |

12 | 2 | 320.93 | 1 | 3 |

13 | 1 | 120.93 | 1 | 1 |

14 | 1 | 120.93 | 1 | 2 |

Zone ID | Scenario ID | Duration (min) | Mason Waiting (min) | Helper Walking (km/day) ∗ |
---|---|---|---|---|

4 | 1 | 4256.61 | 1644.22 | 12.44 |

2 | 2519.07 | 404.74 | 9.53 | |

3 | 1947.24 | 112.40 | 8.00 | |

4 | 1804.36 | 47.87 | 7.05 | |

5 | 1711.72 | 45.45 | 5.68 | |

3 | 6 | 3349.44 | 1149.85 | 10.85 |

7 | 2133.53 | 208.81 | 7.92 | |

8 | 1777.11 | 44.67 | 6.60 | |

9 | 1657.15 | 25.71 | 4.96 | |

2 | 10 | 2581.16 | 622.17 | 8.87 |

11 | 1778.35 | 89.50 | 6.75 | |

12 | 1611.93 | 22.72 | 4.47 | |

1 | 13 | 1802.66 | 201.62 | 4.90 |

14 | 1522.13 | 24.67 | 2.49 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Osorio-Sandoval, C.A.; Tizani, W.; Pereira, E.; Ninić, J.; Koch, C. Framework for BIM-Based Simulation of Construction Operations Implemented in a Game Engine. *Buildings* **2022**, *12*, 1199.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081199

**AMA Style**

Osorio-Sandoval CA, Tizani W, Pereira E, Ninić J, Koch C. Framework for BIM-Based Simulation of Construction Operations Implemented in a Game Engine. *Buildings*. 2022; 12(8):1199.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081199

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Osorio-Sandoval, Carlos A., Walid Tizani, Estacio Pereira, Jelena Ninić, and Christian Koch. 2022. "Framework for BIM-Based Simulation of Construction Operations Implemented in a Game Engine" *Buildings* 12, no. 8: 1199.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081199