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Metals 2019, 9(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9010060

Diffraction Line Profile Analysis of 3D Wedge Samples of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated Using Four Different Additive Manufacturing Processes

1
School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
2
Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
3
The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW 2234, Australia
4
Monash Centre for Additive Manufacturing, Monash University, Notting Hill, VIC 3168, Australia
5
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
6
School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
7
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
Deceased—12th January 2017.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys for Biomedical Implants and Devices)
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Abstract

Wedge-shaped samples were manufactured by four different Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, namely selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM), direct metal deposition (DMD), and wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), using Ti-6Al-4V as the feed material. A high-resolution powder diffractometer was used to measure the diffraction patterns of the samples whilst rotated about two axes to collect detected neutrons from all possible lattice planes. The diffraction pattern of a LaB6 standard powder sample was also measured to characterize the instrumental broadening and peak shapes necessary for the Diffraction Line Profile Analysis. The line profile analysis was conducted using the extended Convolution Multiple Whole Profile (eCMWP) procedure. Once analyzed, it was found that there was significant variation in the dislocation densities between the SLMed and the EBMed samples, although having a similar manufacturing technique. While the samples fabricated via WAAM and the DMD processes showed almost similar dislocation densities, they were, however, different in comparison to the other two AM processes, as expected. The hexagonal (HCP) crystal structure of the predominant α-Ti phase allowed a breakdown of the percentage of the Burgers’ vectors possible for this crystal structure. All four techniques exhibited different combinations of the three possible Burgers’ vectors, and these differences were attributed to the variation in the cooling rates experienced by the parts fabricated using these AM processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ti-6Al-4V; additive manufacturing; selective laser melting (SLM); electron beam melting (EBM); direct metal deposition (DMD); wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM); diffraction line profile analysis; extended convolution multiple whole profile (eCMWP) Ti-6Al-4V; additive manufacturing; selective laser melting (SLM); electron beam melting (EBM); direct metal deposition (DMD); wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM); diffraction line profile analysis; extended convolution multiple whole profile (eCMWP)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Cottam, R.; Palanisamy, S.; Avdeev, M.; Jarvis, T.; Henry, C.; Cuiuri, D.; Balogh, L.; Abdul Rahman Rashid, R. Diffraction Line Profile Analysis of 3D Wedge Samples of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated Using Four Different Additive Manufacturing Processes. Metals 2019, 9, 60.

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