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Microalloyed Steels through History until 2018: Review of Chemical Composition, Processing and Hydrogen Service

1
Instituto Tecnológico de Morelia, Avenida Tecnológico No. 1500, Col. Lomas de Santiaguito, Morelia 58120, México
2
CIICAp, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca 62609, Mexico
3
Instituto de Ciencias Físicas-UNAM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca 62609, Mexico
4
Facultad de Química-UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica S/N, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
5
CONACYT, CIATEQ, Unidad San Luis Potosí, Eje 126 No. 225, Zona Industrial, San Luis Potosí 78395, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2018, 8(5), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050351
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microalloyed Steels)

Abstract

Microalloyed steels have evolved in terms of their chemical composition, processing, and metallurgical characteristics since the beginning of the 20th century in the function of fabrication costs and mechanical properties required to obtain high-performance materials needed to accommodate for the growing demands of gas and hydrocarbons transport. As a result of this, microalloyed steels present a good combination of high strength and ductility obtained through the addition of microalloying elements, thermomechanical processing, and controlled cooling, processes capable of producing complex microstructures that improve the mechanical properties of steels. These controlled microstructures can be severely affected and result in catastrophic failures, due to the atomic hydrogen diffusion that occurs during the corrosion process of pipeline steel. Recently, a martensite–bainite microstructure with acicular ferrite has been chosen as a viable candidate to be used in environments with the presence of hydrogen. The aim of this review is to summarize the main changes of chemical composition, processing techniques, and the evolution of the mechanical properties throughout recent history on the use of microalloying in high strength low alloy steels, as well as the effects of hydrogen in newly created pipelines, examining the causes behind the mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement in these steels. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalloyed steels; mechanical properties; processing; microstructural and chemical composition; hydrogen embrittlement microalloyed steels; mechanical properties; processing; microstructural and chemical composition; hydrogen embrittlement
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Villalobos, J.C.; Del-Pozo, A.; Campillo, B.; Mayen, J.; Serna, S. Microalloyed Steels through History until 2018: Review of Chemical Composition, Processing and Hydrogen Service. Metals 2018, 8, 351.

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